Ethical Hacking


Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Overlook at

Haccalifornia california king has becomeen a part of complaceing for althe majority of five decades and it is a very wide discipline, which covers a wide range of topics. The 1st belowstandn furthermoret of haccalifornia california king had getn place in 1960 at MIT and at the exwork same time, the term "Hacker" was originated.

Haccalifornia california king is the workion of finding the probable enattempt stages thead use exist in a complaceer system or a complaceer ne2rk and finally entering into them. Haccalifornia california king is usually done to gain unauthorised access to a complaceer system or a complaceer ne2rk, either to hadjustable rate mortgage the systems or to steal sensit downive information available on the complaceer.

Haccalifornia california king is usually legal as long as it is becomeing done to find weaknesses in a complaceer or ne2rk system for checcalifornia king purpose. This sort of haccalifornia california king is whead use we call Ethical Haccalifornia california king.

A complaceer expert who does the workion of haccalifornia california king is caldelivered a "Hacker". Hackers are those who seek belowstanddeliveredge, to belowstand how systems operate, how they are designed, and then attempt to play with these systems.

Types of Haccalifornia california king

We can segregate haccalifornia california king into various categories, based on whead use is becomeing hacked. Here is a set of examples −

  • Websit downe Haccalifornia california king − Haccalifornia california king a websit downe means tacalifornia california king unauthorised manage over a web server and it’s associated delicatebattlee such as databases and other interfaces.

  • Ne2rk Haccalifornia california king − Haccalifornia california king a ne2rk means gathering information about generally there a ne2rk simply by using tools like Telnet, NS lookup, Ping, Tracert, Netstat, etc. with the intent to hadjustable rate mortgage the ne2rk system and hamper it’s operation.

  • Email Haccalifornia california king − It includes getting unauthorised access on an Email account and using it without generally there tacalifornia california king the consent of it’s owner.

  • Ethical Haccalifornia california king − Ethical haccalifornia california king involves finding weaknesses in a complaceer or ne2rk system for checcalifornia king purpose and finally getting them fixed.

  • Password Haccalifornia california king − This is the process of recovering secret movewords from data thead use has becomeen stored-coloured in or transmitted simply by a complaceer system.

  • Complaceer Haccalifornia california king − This is the process of stealing complaceer ID and moveword simply by applying haccalifornia california king methods and getting unauthorised access to a complaceer system.

Advantages of Haccalifornia california king

Haccalifornia california king is very helpful in the folloearng scenarios −

  • To recover lost information, especially in case you lost your own own moveword.

  • To perform penetration checcalifornia king to strengthen complaceer and ne2rk security.

  • To place adequate prfurthermoretative measures in place to prfurthermoret security breveryes.

  • To have a complaceer system thead use prfurthermorets malicious hackers from gaining access.

Diunfortunatevantages of Haccalifornia california king

Haccalifornia california king is very dangerous if it is done with hadjustable rate mortgageful intent. It can cause −

  • Massive security brevery.

  • Unauthorised system access on private information.

  • Privacy violation.

  • Hampering system operation.

  • Denial of service attacks.

  • Malicious attack on the system.

Purpose of Haccalifornia california king

There can become various posit downive and negative intentions becomehind performing haccalifornia california king workionivilinks. Here is a list of many probable reasons why people indulge in haccalifornia california king workionivilinks −

  • Just for fun

  • Show-off

  • Steal imslotant information

  • Damaging the system

  • Hampering privacy

  • Money extortion

  • System security checcalifornia king

  • To break policy compliance

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Hacker Types

Hackers can become courseified into various categories such as white head use, black head use, and grey head use, based on their particular intent of haccalifornia california king a system. These various terms come from old Spaghetti Westerns, where the bad guy uses a black cowboy head use and the great guy uses a white head use.

White Hat Hackers

White Hat hackers are furthermore belowstandn as Ethical Hackers. They never intent to hadjustable rate mortgage a system, instead they attempt to find out generally there weaknesses in a complaceer or a ne2rk system as a part of penetration checcalifornia king and vulnerpotential assessments.

Ethical haccalifornia california king is not unlawful and it is one of the demanding jobs available in the IT indusattempt. There are many kind of companies thead use hire ethical hackers for penetration checcalifornia king and vulnerpotential assessments.

Black Hat Hackers

Black Hat hackers, furthermore belowstandn as crackers, are those who hack in order to gain unauthorised access to a system and hadjustable rate mortgage it’s operations or steal sensit downive information.

Black Hat haccalifornia california king is always unlawful becomecause of it’s bad intent which includes stealing corporate data, violating privacy, damaging the system, bloccalifornia california king ne2rk communication, etc.

Grey Hat Hackers

Grey head use hackers are a blend of both black head use and white head use hackers. They workion without generally there malicious intent but for their particular fun, they exploit a security weakness in a complaceer system or ne2rk without generally there the owner’s permission or belowstanddeliveredge.

Their intent is to bring the weakness to the attention of the owners and getting appreciation or a little bounty from the owners.

Miscellularaneous Hackers

Apart from the above well-belowstandn coursees of hackers, we have the folloearng categories of hackers based on whead use they hack and how they do it −

Red Hat Hackers

Red head use hackers are again a blend of both black head use and white head use hackers. They are usually on the level of haccalifornia california king government agencies, top-secret information hubs, and generally any kind of kind ofslimg thead use falls below the category of sensit downive information.

Blue Hat Hackers

A blue head use hacker is seversolely out generally thereaspect complaceer security consulting firms who is used to bug-check a system prior to it’s launch. They look for loopholes thead use can become exploited and attempt to close these gaps. Microdelicate furthermore uses the term BlueHat to represent a series of security shorting furthermorets.

Elite Hackers

This is a social status among hackers, which is used to describecome the the majority of potentiabrought. Newly discovered-coloured exploit’s will circulate among these hackers.

Script Kidmove away

A script kidmove away is a non-expert who breaks into complaceer systems simply by using pre-packaged automated tools produced simply by others, usually with little belowstanding of the belowlying concept, hence the term Kidmove away.


A neophyte, "n00b", or "brand brand newbie" or "Green Hat Hacker" is seversolely who is brand brand new to haccalifornia california king or phreacalifornia california king and has althe majority of no belowstanddeliveredge or encounter of the worcalifornia california kings of technology and haccalifornia california king.


A hacktivist is a hacker who utilizes technology to announce a social, ideological, religious, or political message. In general, the majority of hacktivism involves websit downe defacement or denialof-service attacks.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Famous Hackers

In this chapter, we will have a short synopsis of many of the famous Hackers and how they becomecame famous.

Jonathan James

Jonathan James

Jonathan James was an American hacker, illfamous as the 1st juvenile sent to prison for cybecomercrime in United States. He committed suicide in 2008 of a self-inflicted gunshot wound.

In 1999, at the age of 16, he gained access to various complaceers simply by breacalifornia california king the moveword of a server thead use becomelonged to NASA and stole the source code of the International Space Station among other sensit downive information.

Ian Murphy

Ian Murphy

Ian Murphy, furthermore belowstandn as Captain Zap, at one stage of time was having high college pupils steal complaceer equipment for him. Ian selfproclaims to have becomeen "the 1st hacker ever convicted of a crime".

Ian's career as a master hacker was fabricated in 1986 after he and his unemployed wife figure out generally thered to form many kind of business.

He has a long background of complaceer and Internet frauds. One of his favourite games is to forge Email minders and to send out generally there third-party threat enaballowers.

Kevin Mitnick

Kevin Mitnick

Kevin Mitnick is a complaceer security consultant and author, who infiltrates his care locatednts’ companies to expose their particular security strengths, weaknesses, and potential loopholes.

He is the 1st hacker to have his face immortalized on an FBI "Most Wanted" poster. He was previously the the majority of wanted complaceer criminal in the background of United States.

From the 1970s up until his final arrest in 1995, he skilcompallowey simply bymoveed corporate security secureguards, and found his way into many of the the majority of well-guarded systems such as Sun Microsystems, Digital Equipment Corporation, Motorola, Netcom, and Nokia.

Mark Abecomene

Mark Abecomene

Mark Abecomene, belowstandn around the world simply by his pseudonym Phibecomer Optik, is an information security expert and entrepreneur. He was a high-profile hacker in the 1980s and earrestr 1990s. He was one of the 1st hackers to open uply debate and defend the posit downive merit’s of ethical haccalifornia california king as a becomeneficial tool to indusattempt.

His expertise spreads amix penetration stumove aways, on-sit downe security assessments, secure code relook ats, security policy relook at and generation, systems and ne2rk architecture, systems administration and ne2rk management, among many kind of kind of others. His care locatedntele includes American Express, UBS, First USA, Ernst & Young, KPMG and others.

Johan Helsinguis

Johan Helsinguis

Johan Helsingius, becometter belowstandn as Julf, came into the limelight in the 1980s when he started operating the world's the majority of popular anonymous remailer, caldelivered

Johan was furthermore responsible for product producement for the 1st Pan-European internet service provider, Eunet International.

He is at present, a membecomer of the panel of Technologia Incognita, a hackerspace association in Amsterdam, and supslots the communication companies worldwide with his cybecomer belowstanddeliveredge.

Linus Torvalds

Linus Torvalds

Linus Torvalds is belowstandn as one of the becomest hackers of all time. He increased to fame simply by creating Linux, the very popular Unix-based operating system. Linux is open up source and thougreat good sands of produceers have contributed to it’s Kernel. However, Torvalds remains the ultimate authority on whead use brand brand new code is withincorporated into the standard Linux kernel. As of 2006, approximately 2 percent of the Linux kernel was produced simply by Torvalds himself.

He simply aspires to become easy and have fun simply by macalifornia california king the world’s becomest operating system. Torvalds has received honorary physicianates from Stockholm Universit downy and Universit downy of Helsinki.

Robecomert Morris

Robecomert Morris

Robecomert Morris, belowstandn as the creator of the Morris Worm, the 1st complaceer worm to become unleashed on the Internet. The worm had the cappotential to gradual down complaceers and make them no longer usable. As a result of this, he was sentenced to three seasons’ probation, 400 hrs of community service and furthermore had to pay a penalty amount of $10,500.

Morris is currently worcalifornia california king as a tenured-coloured professor at the MIT Complaceer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

Gary McKinnon

Gary McKinnon

Gary McKinnon is a renowned systems administrator and hacker. He was famously accused of the “hugegest military complaceer hack of all time”. He had successcompallowey hacked the ne2rks of Army, Air Force, Navy and NASA systems of the United States government.

In his statements to the media, he has usually mentioned thead use his motivation was only to find evidence of UFOs, antigravity technology, and the suppression of “free energy” thead use could potentially become helpful to the public.

Kevin Poulsen

Kevin Poulsen

Kevin Poulsen, furthermore belowstandn as Dark Dante, becomecame famous for his notoriety when he took over all the telephone lines of Los Angeles radio station KIIS-FM, guaranteeing thead use he would become the 102nd caller and earn the prize of a Porsche 944 S2.

Poulsen furthermore drew the ire of FBI, when he hacked into federal complaceers for caballowap information, for which he had to serve a sentence of five seasons. He has reinvented himself as a journalist and has carved a niche for himself in this field.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Terminologies

Folloearng is a list of imslotant terms used in the field of haccalifornia california king.

  • Adbattlee − Adbattlee is delicatebattlee designed to force pre-chosen ads to display on your own own system.

  • Attack − An attack is an workionion thead use is done on a system to get it’s access and extrworkion sensit downive data.

  • Back door − A back door, or trap door, is a hidden enattempt to a complaceing device or delicatebattlee thead use simply bymovees security measures, such as logins and moveword protections.

  • Bot − A bot is a program thead use automates an workionion so thead use it can become done repeatedly at a a lot higher rate for a more sustained period than a individual operator could do it. For example, sending HTTP, FTP or Telnet at a higher rate or calling script to produce objects at a higher rate.

  • Botnet − A botnet, furthermore belowstandn as zombie adjustable rate mortgagey, is a group of complaceers managedelivered without generally there their particular owners’ belowstanddeliveredge. Botnets are used to send spam or make denial of service attacks.

  • Brute force attack − A brute force attack is an automated and the easyst kind of method to gain access to a system or websit downe. It tries various combination of usernames and movewords, over and over again, until it gets in.

  • Buffer Overflow − Buffer Overflow is a flaw thead use occurs when more data is produced to a block of memory, or buffer, than the buffer is allocated to hold.

  • Csingle phishing − Csingle phishing is the modification of an existing, legitimate email with a false link to trick the recipient into providing individual information.

  • Cracker − A cracker is one who modifies the delicatebattlee to access the features which are conaspectred-coloured undesirable simply by the person craccalifornia california king the delicatebattlee, especially duplicate protection features.

  • Denial of service attack (DoS) − A denial of service (DoS) attack is a malicious attempt to make a server or a ne2rk resource unavailable to users, usually simply by temporarily interrupting or suinvesting the services of a host connected to the Internet.

  • DDoS − Distributed denial of service attack.

  • Exploit Kit − An exploit kit is delicatebattlee system designed to operate on web servers, with the purpose of identifying delicatebattlee vulnerabililinks in care locatednt machines communicating with it and exploiting discovered-coloured vulnerabililinks to upload and execute malicious code on the care locatednt.

  • Exploit − Exploit is a piece of delicatebattlee, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands thead use gets advantage of a bug or vulnerpotential to compromise the security of a complaceer or ne2rk system.

  • Firewall − A firewall is a filter designed to keep unwanted intruders out generally thereaspect a complaceer system or ne2rk while enableing secure communication becometween systems and users on the inaspect of the firewall.

  • Keystroke logging − Keystroke logging is the process of traccalifornia california king the keys which are pressed on a complaceer (and which touchscreen stages are used). It is simply the chart of a complaceer/individual interface. It is used simply by grey and black head use hackers to record login IDs and movewords. Keyloggers are usually secreted onto a device using a Trojan deresidered-coloured simply by a phishing email.

  • Logic bomb − A virus secreted into a system thead use triggers a malicious workionion when particular conditions are met. The the majority of common version is the time bomb.

  • Malbattlee − Malbattlee is an umbrella term used to refer to a variety of forms of hostile or intrusive delicatebattlee, including complaceer viruses, worms, Trojan equines, ransombattlee, spybattlee, adbattlee, scarebattlee, and other malicious programs.

  • Master Program − A master program is the program a black head use hacker uses to remotely transmit commands to infected zombie drones, normally to carry out generally there Denial of Service attacks or spam attacks.

  • Phishing − Phishing is an e-mail fraud method in which the perpetrator sends out generally there legitimate-loocalifornia california king emails, in an attempt to gather individual and financial information from recipients.

  • Phreaker − Phreakers are conaspectred-coloured the initial complaceer hackers and they are those who break into the telephone ne2rk unlawcompallowey, typically to make free longdistance phone calls or to tap phone lines.

  • Rootkit − Rootkit is a stealthy kind of delicatebattlee, typically malicious, designed to hide the existence of particular processes or programs from normal methods of detection and enable continued privileged access to a complaceer.

  • Shrink Wrap code − A Shrink Wrap code attack is an workion of exploiting holes in unpatched or poorly configured-coloured delicatebattlee.

  • Social engineering − Social engineering impare locateds deceiving seversolely with the purpose of acquiring sensit downive and individual information, like cred-colouredit card details or user names and movewords.

  • Spam − A Spam is simply an unsolicited email, furthermore belowstandn as junk email, sent to a huge numbecomer of recipients without generally there their particular consent.

  • Spoofing − Spoofing is a technique used to gain unauthorised access to complaceers, where’simply by the intruder sends messages to a complaceer with an IP adout generally therefit indicating thead use the message is coming from a trusted host.

  • Spybattlee − Spybattlee is delicatebattlee thead use aims to gather information about generally there a person or body organization without generally there their particular belowstanddeliveredge and thead use may send such information to one more entity without generally there the consumer's consent, or thead use asserts manage over a complaceer without generally there the consumer's belowstanddeliveredge.

  • SQL Injection − SQL injection is an SQL code injection technique, used to attack data-driven applications, in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into an enattempt field for execution (e.g. to dump the database contents to the attacker).

  • Threat − A threat is a probable danger thead use can exploit an existing bug or vulnerpotential to compromise the security of a complaceer or ne2rk system.

  • Trojan − A Trojan, or Trojan Horse, is a malicious program disguised to look like a valid program, macalifornia california king it difficult to distinguish from programs thead use are meant to become generally generally there designed with an intention to destroy files, alter information, steal movewords or other information.

  • Virus − A virus is a malicious program or a piece of code which is capable of duplicateing it’self and typically has a detrimental effect, such as corrupting the system or destroying data.

  • Vulnerpotential − A vulnerpotential is a weakness which enables a hacker to compromise the security of a complaceer or ne2rk system.

  • Worms − A worm is a self-replicating virus thead use does not alter files but reaspects in workionive memory and duplicates it’self.

  • Cross-sit downe Scripting − Cross-sit downe scripting (XSS) is a kind of complaceer security vulnerpotential typically found in web applications. XSS enables attackers to inject care locatednt-aspect script into web pages look ated simply by other users.

  • Zombie Drone − A Zombie Drone is degreatd as a hi-jacked complaceer thead use is becomeing used anonymously as a solmove awayr or 'drone' for malicious workionivity, for example, distributing unwanted spam e-mails.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Tools

In this chapter, we will talk about in short many of famous tools thead use are widely used to prfurthermoret haccalifornia california king and getting unauthorised access to a complaceer or ne2rk system.


Nchart stands for Ne2rk Mapper. It is an open up source tool thead use is used widely for ne2rk discovery and security auditing. Nchart was initially designed to scan huge ne2rks, but it can work equally well for single hosts. Ne2rk administrators furthermore find it helpful for tasks such as ne2rk inventory, managing service upgrade schedules, and monitoring host or service uptime.

Nchart uses raw IP packets to figure out generally there −

  • whead use hosts are available on the ne2rk,

  • whead use services those hosts are offering,

  • whead use operating systems they are operatening on,

  • whead use kind of firewalls are in use, and other such charworkioneristics.

Nchart operates on all major complaceer operating systems such as Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux.


Metasploit is one of the the majority of powerful exploit tools. It’s a product of Rapid7 and the majority of of it’s resources can become found at: It comes in 2 versions − commercial and free edition. Matasploit can become used with command prompt or with Web UI.

With Metasploit, you can perform the folloearng operations −

  • Conduct easy penetration checks on small ne2rks

  • Run spot checks on the exploitpotential of vulnerabililinks

  • Discover the ne2rk or imslot scan data

  • Blinese exploit modules and operate individual exploit’s on hosts

Burp Suit

Burp Suite is a popular platform thead use is widely used for performing security checcalifornia king of web applications. It has various tools thead use work in collaboration to supslot the entire checcalifornia king process, from preliminary chartping and analysis of an application's attack surface, through to finding and exploiting security vulnerabililinks.

Burp is easy to use and provides the administrators compallowe manage to combine advanced manual techniques with automation for effective checcalifornia king. Burp can become easily configured-coloured and it contains features to assist furthermore the the majority of encounterd checkers with their particular work.

Angry IP Scanner

Angry IP scanner is a lightweight, mix-platform IP adout generally therefit and slot scanner. It can scan IP adout generally therefites in any kind of kind of range. It can become freely copied and used any kind of kind ofwhere. In order to increase the scanning speed, it uses multithreaded approach, wherein a separate scanning thread is produced for every scanned IP adout generally therefit.

Angry IP Scanner simply pings every IP adout generally therefit to check if it’s areside, and then, it resolves it’s hostname, figure out generally there’s the MAC adout generally therefit, scans slots, etc. The amount of gagenerally generally thered-coloured data about generally there every host can become saved to TXT, XML, CSV, or IP-Port list files. With help of plugins, Angry IP Scanner can gather any kind of kind of information about generally there scanned IPs.

Cain & Abecomel

Cain & Abecomel is a moveword recovery tool for Microdelicate Operating Systems. It helps in easy recovery of various kinds of movewords simply by employing any kind of kind of of the folloearng methods −

  • sniffing the ne2rk,

  • craccalifornia california king enweeppted movewords using Dictionary, Brute-Force and Cryptanalysis attacks,

  • recording VoIP conversations,

  • decoding scrambdelivered movewords,

  • recovering cableless ne2rk keys,

  • revealing moveword packagees,

  • uncovering cached movewords and analyzing rout generally thereing protocols.

Cain & Abecomel is a helpful tool for security consultants, professional penetration checkers and everyone else who plans to use it for ethical reasons.


Ettercap stands for Ethernet Capture. It is a ne2rk security tool for Man-in-the-Middle attacks. It features sniffing of reside interconnections, content filtering on the fly and many kind of kind of other curiosit downying tricks. Ettercap has inbuilt features for ne2rk and host analysis. It supslots workionive and moveive dissection of many kind of kind of protocols.

You can operate Ettercap on all the popular operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X.


EtherPeek is a wonderful tool thead use simplifies ne2rk analysis within a multiprotocol heterogeneous ne2rk environment. EtherPeek is a small tool (less than 2 MB) thead use can become easily instaldelivered in a matter of few minutes.

EtherPeek plineorkionively sniffs traffic packets on a ne2rk. By default, EtherPeek supslots protocols such as AppleTalk, IP, IP Adout generally therefit Resolution Protocol (ARP), NetWare, TCP, UDP, NetBEUI, and NBT packets.


SuperScan is a powerful tool for ne2rk administrators to scan TCP slots and resolve hostnames. It has a user friendly interface thead use you can use to −

  • Perform ping scans and slot scans using any kind of kind of IP range.

  • Scan any kind of kind of slot range from a built-in list or any kind of kind of given range.

  • View responses from connected hosts.

  • Modify the slot list and slot descriptions using the built in editor.

  • Merge slot lists to produce brand brand new ones.

  • Connect to any kind of kind of discovered-coloured open up slot.

  • Assign a custom helper application to any kind of kind of slot.


QualysGuard is an integrated suite of tools thead use can become utilized to simplify security operations and lower the cost of compliance. It deresiders critical security intelligence on demand and automates the compallowe spectrum of auditing, compliance and protection for IT systems and web applications.

QualysGuard includes a set of tools thead use can monitor, detect, and protect your own own global ne2rk.


WebInspect is a web application security assessment tool thead use helps identify belowstandn and unbelowstandn vulnerabililinks wislim the Web application layer.

It can furthermore help check thead use a Web server is configured-coloured properly, and attempts common web attacks such as parameter injection, mix-sit downe scripting, immediateory traversal, and more.


LC4 was previously belowstandn as L0phtCrack. It is a moveword auditing and recovery application. It is used to check moveword strength and manytimes to recover lost Microdelicate Windows movewords, simply by using book, brute-force, and hybrid attacks.

LC4 recovers Windows user account movewords to streamline migration of users to one more authentication system or to access accounts in in whose movewords are lost.

LANguard Ne2rk Security Scanner

LANguard Ne2rk Scanner monitors a ne2rk simply by scanning connected machines and providing information about generally there every node. You can obtain information about generally there every individual operating system.

It can furthermore detect regisattempt issues and have a reslot set up in HTML format. For every complaceer, you can list the netbios name table, current logged-on user, and Mac adout generally therefit.

Ne2rk Stumbler

Ne2rk stumbler is a WiFi scanner and monitoring tool for Windows. It enables ne2rk professionals to detect WLANs. It is widely used simply by ne2rcalifornia california king enthusiasts and hackers becomecause it helps you find non-widecasting cableless ne2rks.

Ne2rk Stumbler can become used to verify if a ne2rk is well configured-coloured, it’s signal strength or coverage, and detect interference becometween one or more cableless ne2rks. It can furthermore become used to non-authorised interconnections.


ToneLoc stands for Tone Locator. It was a popular battle dialling complaceer program produced for MS-DOS in the earrestr 90’s. War dialling is a technique of using a modem to automatically scan a list of telephone numbecomers, usually dialling every numbecomer in a local area code.

Malicious hackers use the resulting lists in breverying complaceer security – for supposeing user accounts, or locating modems thead use may provide an enattempt-stage into complaceer or other digital systems.

It can become used simply by security personnel to detect unauthorised devices on a company kind of kind of’s telephone ne2rk.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Skills

As an ethical hacker, you will need to belowstand various haccalifornia california king techniques such as −

  • Password supposeing and craccalifornia california king
  • Session hijaccalifornia california king
  • Session spoofing
  • Ne2rk traffic sniffing
  • Ne2rk traffic sniffing
  • Denial of Service attacks
  • Exploiting buffer overflow vulnerabililinks
  • SQL injection

In this chapter, we will talk about many of the potentials thead use you would require to becomecome an expert in Ethical Haccalifornia california king.

Basic Skills

Complaceer Haccalifornia california king is a Science as well as an Art. Like any kind of kind of other expertise, you need to place a lot of effort in order to acquire belowstanddeliveredge and becomecome an expert hacker. Once you are on the track, you would need more effort to keep up-to-date with lacheck technologies, brand brand new vulnerabililinks and exploitation techniques.

  • An ethical hacker must become a complaceer systems expert and needs to have very strong programming and complaceer ne2rcalifornia california king potentials.

  • An ethical hacker needs to have a lot of palinknce, persistence, and perseverance to attempt again and again and wait for the required-coloured result.

Additionally, an ethical hacker ought to become smart sufficient to belowstand the sit downuation and other users’ mind-set in order to apply social engineering exploit’s. A great ethical hacker has great issue-solving potentials too.

Courses & Certifications

This tutorial provides the easy guidelines to becomecome a successful Ethical Hacker. If you like to excel in this field, then you may select to pursue the folloearng courses and certifications −

  • Obtain a bachelor’s degree in Complaceer Science or A+ Certificate to gain an belowstanding of the the majority of common hardbattlee and delicatebattlee technologies.

  • Get into a programmer’s role for a few seasons and then switch to get a tech supslot posit downion.

  • Proceed to get ne2rk certifications like Ne2rk+ or CCNA and then security certifications like Security+, CISSP, or TICSA.

  • It is recommended thead use you get many work encounter as a Ne2rk Engineer and System Administrator to belowstand ne2rks and systems inaspect out generally there.

  • Keep going through various books, tutorials and papers to belowstand various complaceer security aspects and get them as a challenge to secure your own own ne2rk and complaceer systems as ne2rk security engineer.

  • Study courses which cover creating Trojan equines, backdoors, viruses, and worms, denial of service (DoS) attacks, SQL injection, buffer overflow, session hijaccalifornia california king, and system haccalifornia california king.

  • Master the art of penetration checcalifornia king, footprinting and reconnaissance, and social engineering.

  • Finally go for a Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) Certification.

GIAC (Global Information Assurance Certification) and Offensive Security Certified Professional (OSCP) are additional IT security certifications which will add a lot of value to your own own profile.

Final Note

You need to stay as a White Hat Hacker which means you need to work wislim given boundaries. Never intrude or attack any kind of kind of complaceer or ne2rk without generally there a required-coloured permission from the authorilinks.

As a final note, it is highly recommended thead use you refrain from engaging your own ownself in black head use haccalifornia california king which may spoil your own own entire career.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Process

Like all great projects, ethical haccalifornia california king too has a set of unique phases. It helps hackers to make a structured-coloured ethical haccalifornia california king attack.

Different security training manuals exeasy the process of ethical haccalifornia california king in various ways, but for me as a Certified Ethical Hacker, the entire process can become categorized into the folloearng six phases.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king Process


Reconnaissance is the phase where the attacker gathers information about generally there a target using workionive or moveive means. The tools thead use are widely used in this process are NMAP, Hping, Maltego, and Google Dorks.


In this process, the attacker becomegins to workionively probecome a target machine or ne2rk for vulnerabililinks thead use can become exploited. The tools used in this process are Nessus, Nexpose, and NMAP.

Gaining Access

In this process, the vulnerpotential is located and you attempt to exploit it in order to enter into the system. The primary tool thead use is used in this process is Metasploit.

Maintaining Access

It is the process where the hacker has already gained access into a system. After gaining access, the hacker installs many backdoors in order to enter into the system when he needs access in this owned system in future. Metasploit is the preferred-coloured tool in this process.

Clearing Tracks

This process is workionually an unethical workionivity. It has to do with the deenableion of logs of all the workionivilinks thead use get place during the haccalifornia california king process.


Resloting is the final step of compalloweing the ethical haccalifornia california king process. Here the Ethical Hacker compiles a reslot with his findings and the job thead use was done such as the tools used, the success rate, vulnerabililinks found, and the exploit processes.

Quick Tip

The processes are not standard. You can adopt a set of various processes and tools according to your own own techniques thead use you are comfortable with. The process is of minimumern significance as long as you are able to get the desired-coloured results.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Reconnaissance

Information Gathering and getting to belowstand the target systems is the 1st process in ethical haccalifornia california king. Reconnaissance is a set of processes and techniques (Footprinting, Scanning & Enumeration) used to covertly discover and collect information about generally there a target system.

During reconnaissance, an ethical hacker attempts to gather as a lot information about generally there a target system as probable, folloearng the sfurthermore steps listed becomelow −

  • Gather preliminary information
  • Determine the ne2rk range
  • Identify workionive machines
  • Discover open up slots and access stages
  • Fingerprint the operating system
  • Uncover services on slots
  • Map the ne2rk

We will talk about in detail all these steps in the subsequent chapters of this tutorial. Reconnaissance gets place in 2 parts − Active Reconnaissance and Passive Reconnaissance.

Active Reconnaissance

In this process, you will immediately interworkion with the complaceer system to gain information. This withinformation can become relevant and precise. But generally generally there is a risk of getting detected if you are planning workionive reconnaissance without generally there permission. If you are detected, then system admin can get severe workionion against you and trail your own own subsequent workionivilinks.

Passive Reconnaissance

In this process, you will not become immediately connected to a complaceer system. This process is used to gather essential information without generally there ever interworkioning with the target systems.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Footprinting

Footprinting is a part of reconnaissance process which is used for gathering probable information about generally there a target complaceer system or ne2rk. Footprinting can become both moveive and workionive. Relook ating a company kind of kind of’s websit downe is an example of moveive footprinting, whereas attempting to gain access to sensit downive information through social engineering is an example of workionive information gathering.

Footprinting is easyally the 1st step where hacker gathers as a lot information as probable to find ways to intrude into a target system or at minimumern figure out generally there whead use kind of attacks will become more suitable for the target.

During this phase, a hacker can collect the folloearng information −

  • Domain name
  • IP Adout generally therefites
  • Namespaces
  • Employee information
  • Phone numbecomers
  • E-mails
  • Job Information

In the folloearng section, we will talk about how to extrworkion the easy and easily accessible information about generally there any kind of kind of complaceer system or ne2rk thead use is linked to the Internet.

Domain Name Information

You can use /index.php?s=httpwwwwhoiscomwhois websit downe to get detaidelivered information about generally there a domain name information including it’s owner, it’s registrar, date of registration, expiry, name server, owner's contworkion information, etc.


Here is a sample record of extrworkioned from WHOIS Lookup −

Whois Record

Quick Fix

It's always recommended to keep your own own domain name profile a private one which ought to hide the above-mentioned information from potential hackers.

Finding IP Adout generally therefit

You can use ping command at your own own prompt. This command is available on Windows as well as on Linux OS. Folloearng is the example to find out generally there the IP adout generally therefit of


It will produce the folloearng result −

PING ( 56(84) simply bytes of data. 
64 simply bytes from icmp_seq = 1 ttl = 64 time = 0.028 ms 
64 simply bytes from icmp_seq = 2 ttl = 64 time = 0.021 ms 
64 simply bytes from icmp_seq = 3 ttl = 64 time = 0.021 ms 
64 simply bytes from icmp_seq = 4 ttl = 64 time = 0.021 ms

Finding Hosting Company kind of kind of

Once you have the websit downe adout generally therefit, you can get further detail simply by using websit downe. Folloearng is the example to find out generally there the details of an IP adout generally therefit −


Here the ISP line gives you the detail about generally there the hosting company kind of kind of becomecause IP adout generally therefites are usually provided simply by hosting companies only.

Quick Fix

If a complaceer system or ne2rk is linked with the Internet immediately, then you cannot hide the IP adout generally therefit and the related information such as the hosting company kind of kind of, it’s location, ISP, etc. If you have a server containing very sensit downive data, then it is recommended to keep it becomehind a secure proxy so thead use hackers cannot get the exworkion details of your own own workionual server. This way, it will become difficult for any kind of kind of potential hacker to revery your own own server immediately.

Another effective way of hiding your own own system IP and ultimately all the associated information is to go through a Virtual Private Ne2rk (VPN). If you configure a VPN, then the whole traffic rout generally therees through the VPN ne2rk, so your own own true IP adout generally therefit assigned simply by your own own ISP is always hidden.

IP Adout generally therefit Ranges

Small sit downes may have a single IP adout generally therefit associated with them, but huger websit downes usually have multiple IP adout generally therefites serving various domains and sub-domains.

You can obtain a range of IP adout generally therefites assigned to a particular company kind of kind of using American Regisattempt for Internet Numbecomers (ARIN).


You can enter company kind of kind of name in the highlighted lookup package to find out generally there a list of all the assigned IP adout generally therefites to thead use company kind of kind of.

History of the Websit downe

It is very easy to get a compallowe background of any kind of kind of websit downe using


You can enter a domain name in the lookup package to find out generally there how the websit downe was loocalifornia california king at a given stage of time and whead use were the pages available on the websit downe on various dates.

Archive Record

Quick Fix

Though generally generally there are many advantages of keeping your own own websit downe in an archive database, but if you do nothing like any kind of kind ofbody to see how your own own websit downe progressed through various stages, then you can request to deenablee the background of your own own websit downe.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Fingerprinting

The term OS ring ring fingerprinting in Ethical Haccalifornia california king refers to any kind of kind of method used to figure out generally there whead use operating system is operatening on a remote complaceer. This can become −

  • Active Fingerprinting − Active ring ring fingerprinting is accomplished simply by sending specially crafted packets to a target machine and then noting down it’s response and analyzing the gagenerally generally thered-coloured information to figure out generally there the target OS. In the folloearng section, we have given an example to exeasy how you can use NMAP tool to detect the OS of a target domain.

  • Passive Fingerprinting − Passive ring ring fingerprinting is based on sniffer traces from the remote system. Based on the sniffer traces (such as Wireshark) of the packets, you can figure out generally there the operating system of the remote host.

We have the folloearng four imslotant elements thead use we will look at to figure out generally there the operating system −

  • TTL − Whead use the operating system sets the Time-To-Live on the out generally therebound packet.

  • Window Size − Whead use the operating system sets the Window Size at.

  • DF − Does the operating system set the Don't Fragment bit.

  • TOS − Does the operating system set the Type of Service, and if so, at whead use.

By analyzing these realityionors of a packet, you may become able to figure out generally there the remote operating system. This system is not 100% precise, and works becometter for many operating systems than others.

Basic Steps

Before attaccalifornia california king a system, it is required-coloured thead use you belowstand whead use operating system is hosting a websit downe. Once a target OS is belowstandn, then it becomecomes easy to figure out generally there which vulnerabililinks may become present to exploit the target system.

Below is a easy nchart command which can become used to identify the operating system serving a websit downe and all the open uped slots associated with the domain name, i.e., the IP adout generally therefit.

$nchart -O -v 

It will show you the folloearng sensit downive information about generally there the given domain name or IP adout generally therefit −

Starting Nchart 5.51 ( ) at 2015-10-04 09:57 CDT 
Initiating Parallel DNS resolution of 1 host. at 09:57 
Compenableed Parallel DNS resolution of 1 host. at 09:57, 0.00s elapsed 
Initiating SYN Stealth Scan at 09:57
Scanning ( [1000 slots] 
Discovered-coloured open up slot 22/tcp on 
Discovered-coloured open up slot 3306/tcp on 
Discovered-coloured open up slot 80/tcp on 
Discovered-coloured open up slot 443/tcp on 
Compenableed SYN Stealth Scan at 09:57, 0.04s elapsed (1000 compallowe slots) 
Initiating OS detection (attempt #1) against ( 
Reattempting OS detection (attempt #2) against ( 
Reattempting OS detection (attempt #3) against ( 
Reattempting OS detection (attempt #4) against ( 
Reattempting OS detection (attempt #5) against ( 
Nchart scan reslot for ( 
Host is up (0.000038s latency). 
Not shown: 996 closed slots 
22/tcp   open up  ssh 
80/tcp   open up  http 
443/tcp  open up  https 
3306/tcp open up  mysql  

TCP/IP ring ring fingerprint: 
OS:x86_64-red-colouredhead use-linux-gnu)SEQ(SP=106%GCD=1%ISR=109%TI=Z%CI=Z%II=I%TS=A)OPS 

If you do not have nchart command instaldelivered on your own own Linux system, then you can install it using the folloearng yum command −

$yum install nchart

You can go through nchart command in detail to check and belowstand the various features associated with a system and secure it against malicious attacks.

Quick Fix

You can hide your own own main system becomehind a secure proxy server or a VPN so thead use your own own compallowe identity is secure and ultimately your own own main system remains secure.

Port Scanning

We have simply seen information given simply by nchart command. This command lists down all the open up slots on a given server.

22/tcp     open up    ssh 
80/tcp     open up    http 
443/tcp    open up    https 
3306/tcp   open up    mysql

You can furthermore check if a particular slot is open uped or not using the folloearng command −

$nchart -sT -p 443

It will produce the folloearng result −

Starting Nchart 5.51 ( ) at 2015-10-04 10:19 CDT 
Nchart scan reslot for ( 
Host is up (0.000067s latency). 
443/tcp open up  https  

Nchart done: 1 IP adout generally therefit (1 host up) scanned in 0.04 seconds

Once a hacker belowstands about generally there open up slots, then he can plan various attack techniques through the open up slots.

Quick Fix

It is always recommended to check and close all the unwanted slots to secureguard the system from malicious attacks.

Ping Sweep

A ping sweep is a ne2rk scanning technique thead use you can use to figure out generally there which IP adout generally therefit from a range of IP adout generally therefites chart to reside hosts. Ping Sweep is furthermore belowstandn as ICMP sweep.

You can use fping command for ping sweep. This command is a ping-like program which uses the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request to figure out generally there if a host is up.

fping is not the exwork same as ping in thead use you can specify any kind of kind of numbecomer of hosts on the command line, or specify a file containing the lists of hosts to ping. If a host does not respond wislim a particular time limit and/or reattempt limit, it will become conaspectred-coloured unreveryable.

Quick Fix

To disable ping sweeps on a ne2rk, you can block ICMP ECHO requests from out generally thereaspect sources. This can become done using the folloearng command which will produce a firewall rule in iptable.

$iptables -A OUTPUT -p icmp --icmp-kind echo-request -j DROP

DNS Enumeration

Domain Name Server (DNS) is like a chart or an adout generally therefit book. In realityion, it is like a distributed database which is used to translate an IP adout generally therefit to a name and vice versa.

DNS enumeration is the process of locating all the DNS servers and their particular corresponding records for an body organization. The idea is to gather as a lot curiosit downying details as probable about generally there your own own target becomefore initiating an attack.

You can use nslookup command available on Linux to get DNS and host-related information. In addition, you can use the folloearng DNSenum script to get detaidelivered information about generally there a domain −

DNSenum script can perform the folloearng imslotant operations −

  • Get the host's adout generally therefites

  • Get the nameservers

  • Get the MX record

  • Perform axfr queries on nameservers

  • Get extra names and subdomains via Google scraping

  • Brute force subdomains from file can furthermore perform recursion on subdomain thead use has NS records

  • Calculate C course domain ne2rk ranges and perform whois queries on them

  • Perform reverse lookups on netranges

Quick Fix

DNS Enumeration does not have a fast fix and it is very becomeyond the scope of this tutorial. Prfurthermoreting DNS Enumeration is a huge challenge.

If your own own DNS is not configured-coloured in a secure way, it is probable thead use lots of sensit downive information about generally there the ne2rk and body organization can go out generally thereaspect and an untrusted Internet user can perform a DNS zone transfer.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Sniffing

Sniffing is the process of monitoring and capturing all the packets moveing through a given ne2rk using sniffing tools. It is a form of “tapping phone cables” and get to belowstand about generally there the conversation. It is furthermore caldelivered caballowapping appare locatedd to the complaceer ne2rks.

There is so a lot possibility thead use if a set of enterprise switch slots is open up, then one of their particular employees can sniff the whole traffic of the ne2rk. Anyone in the exwork same physical location can plug into the ne2rk using Ethernet cable or connect cablelessly to thead use ne2rk and sniff the compallowe traffic.

In other words, Sniffing enables you to see all sorts of traffic, both protected and unprotected. In the appropriate conditions and with the appropriate protocols in place, an attaccalifornia california king party may become able to gather information thead use can become used for further attacks or to cause other issues for the ne2rk or system owner.

Whead use can become sniffed?

One can sniff the folloearng sensit downive information from a ne2rk −

  • Email traffic
  • FTP movewords
  • Web traffics
  • Telnet movewords
  • Rout generally thereer configuration
  • Chead use sessions
  • DNS traffic

How it works

A sniffer normally turns the NIC of the system to the promiscuous mode so thead use it listens to all the data transmitted on it’s segment.

Promiscuous mode refers to the unique way of Ethernet hardbattlee, in particular, ne2rk interface cards (NICs), thead use enables an NIC to receive all traffic on the ne2rk, furthermore if it is not adout generally therefited to this NIC. By default, a NIC ignores all traffic thead use is not adout generally therefited to it, which is done simply by comparing the destination adout generally therefit of the Ethernet packet with the hardbattlee adout generally therefit (a.k.a. MAC) of the device. While this makes perfect sense for ne2rcalifornia california king, non-promiscuous mode makes it difficult to use ne2rk monitoring and analysis delicatebattlee for diagnosing connectivity issues or traffic accounting.

Sniffing Ne2rks

A sniffer can continuously monitor all the traffic to a complaceer through the NIC simply by decoding the information encapsulated in the data packets.

Types of Sniffing

Sniffing can become either Active or Passive in charworker.

Passive Sniffing

In moveive sniffing, the traffic is locked but it is not altered-coloured in any kind of kind of way. Passive sniffing enables listening only. It works with Hub devices. On a hub device, the traffic is sent to all the slots. In a ne2rk thead use uses hubs to connect systems, all hosts on the ne2rk can see the traffic. Therefore, an attacker can easily capture traffic going through.

The great brand brand news is thead use hubs are althe majority of obsoenablee nowadays. Most modern ne2rks use switches. Hence, moveive sniffing is no more effective.

Active Sniffing

In workionive sniffing, the traffic is not only locked and monitored-coloured, but it may furthermore become altered-coloured in many way as figure out generally thered simply by the attack. Active sniffing is used to sniff a switch-based ne2rk. It involves injecting adout generally therefit resolution packets (ARP) into a target ne2rk to flood on the switch content adout generally therefitable memory (CAM) table. CAM keeps track of which host is connected to which slot.

Folloearng are the Active Sniffing Techniques −

  • MAC Flooding
  • DHCP Attacks
  • DNS Poisoning
  • Spoofing Attacks
  • ARP Poisoning

Protocols which are affected

Protocols such as the tried and true TCP/IP were never designed with security in mind and generally generally therefore do not offer a lot resistance to potential intruders. Several rules lend themselves to easy sniffing −

  • HTTP − It is used to send information in the clear text without generally there any kind of kind of enweepption and thus a real target.

  • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) − SMTP is easyally utilized in the transfer of emails. This protocol is effective, but it does not include any kind of kind of protection against sniffing.

  • NNTP (Ne2rk News Transfer Protocol)− It is used for all kinds of communications, but it’s main drawback is thead use data and furthermore movewords are sent over the ne2rk as clear text.

  • POP (Post Office Protocol) − POP is rigorously used to receive emails from the servers. This protocol does not include protection against sniffing becomecause it can become trapped.

  • FTP (File Transfer Protocol) − FTP is used to send and receive files, but it does not offer any kind of kind of security features. All the data is sent as clear text thead use can become easily sniffed.

  • IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) − IMAP is exwork same as SMTP in it’s functions, but it is highly vulnerable to sniffing.

  • Telnet − Telnet sends everyslimg (usernames, movewords, keystrokes) over the ne2rk as clear text and hence, it can become easily sniffed.

Sniffers are not the dumb utililinks thead use enable you to look at only reside traffic. If you truly want to analyze every packet, save the capture and relook at it whenever time enables.

Hardbattlee Protocol Analyzers

Before we go into further details of sniffers, it is imslotant thead use we talk about about generally there hardbattlee protocol analyzers. These devices plug into the ne2rk at the hardbattlee level and can monitor traffic without generally there manipulating it.

  • Hardbattlee protocol analyzers are used to monitor and identify malicious ne2rk traffic generated simply by haccalifornia california king delicatebattlee instaldelivered in the system.

  • They capture a data packet, decode it, and analyze it’s content according to particular rules.

  • Hardbattlee protocol analyzers enable attackers to see individual data simply bytes of every packet moveing through the cable.

These hardbattlee devices are not readily available to the majority of ethical hackers due to their particular enormous cost in many kind of kind of cases.

Lawful Interception

Lawful Interception (LI) is degreatd as legally sanctioned access to communications ne2rk data such as telephone calls or email messages. LI must always become in pursuance of a lawful authority for the purpose of analysis or evidence. Therefore, LI is a security process in which a ne2rk operator or service provider gives law enforcement officials permission to access private communications of individuals or body organizations.

Althe majority of all countries have drafted and enworkioned legislation to regulate lawful interception procedures; standardization groups are creating LI technology specifications. Usually, LI workionivilinks are getn for the purpose of infrastructure protection and cybecomer security. However, operators of private ne2rk infrastructures can maintain LI capabililinks wislim their particular own ne2rks as an inherent appropriate, unless otherwise prohibited.

LI was previously belowstandn as caballowapping and has existed since the inception of digital communications.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Sniffing Tools

There are so many kind of kind of tools available to perform sniffing over a ne2rk, and they all have their particular own features to help a hacker analyze traffic and dissect the information. Sniffing tools are extremely common applications. We have listed here many of the curiosit downying ones −

  • BetterCAP − BetterCAP is a powerful, flexible and slotable tool produced to perform various kinds of MITM attacks against a ne2rk, manipulate HTTP, HTTPS and TCP traffic in real-time, sniff for cred-colouredentials, and a lot more.

  • Ettercap − Ettercap is a extensive suite for man-in-the-middle attacks. It features sniffing of reside interconnections, content filtering on the fly and many kind of kind of other curiosit downying tricks. It supslots workionive and moveive dissection of many kind of kind of protocols and includes many kind of kind of features for ne2rk and host analysis.

  • Wireshark − It is one of the the majority of widely belowstandn and used packet sniffers. It offers a tremendous numbecomer of features designed to assist in the dissection and analysis of traffic.

  • Tcpdump − It is a well-belowstandn command-line packet analyzer. It provides the potential to intercept and observe TCP/IP and other packets during transmission over the ne2rk. Available at

  • WinDump − A Windows slot of the popular Linux packet sniffer tcpdump, which is a command-line tool thead use is perfect for displaying minder information.

  • OmniPeek − Manurealityionured-coloured simply by WildPackets, OmniPeek is a commercial product thead use is the evolution of the product EtherPeek.

  • Dsniff − A suite of tools designed to perform sniffing with various protocols with the intent of intercepting and revealing movewords. Dsniff is designed for Unix and Linux platforms and does not have a compallowe equivalent on the Windows platform.

  • EtherApe − It is a Linux/Unix tool designed to display graphically a system's incoming and out generally theregoing interconnections.

  • MSN Sniffer − It is a sniffing utility specifically designed for sniffing traffic generated simply by the MSN Messenger application.

  • NetWitness NextGen − It includes a hardbattlee-based sniffer, along with other features, designed to monitor and analyze all traffic on a ne2rk. This tool is used simply by the FBI and other law enforcement agencies.

A potential hacker can use any kind of kind of of these sniffing tools to analyze traffic on a ne2rk and dissect information.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – ARP Poisoning

Adout generally therefit Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a stateless protocol used for resolving IP adout generally therefites to machine MAC adout generally therefites. All ne2rk devices thead use need to communicate on the ne2rk widecast ARP queries in the system to find out generally there other machines’ MAC adout generally therefites. ARP Poisoning is furthermore belowstandn as ARP Spoofing.

Here is how ARP works −

  • When one machine needs to communicate with one more, it looks up it’s ARP table.

  • If the MAC adout generally therefit is not found in the table, the ARP_request is widecasted over the ne2rk.

  • All machines on the ne2rk will compare this IP adout generally therefit to MAC adout generally therefit.

  • If one of the machines in the ne2rk identifies this adout generally therefit, then it will respond to the ARP_request with it’s IP and MAC adout generally therefit.

  • The requesting complaceer will store the adout generally therefit pair in it’s ARP table and communication will get place.

Whead use is ARP Spoofing?

ARP packets can become forged to send data to the attacker’s machine.

  • ARP spoofing constructs a huge numbecomer of forged ARP request and reply packets to overload the switch.

  • The switch is set in forbattdelivereding mode and after the ARP table is flooded with spoofed ARP responses, the attackers can sniff all ne2rk packets.

Attackers flood a target complaceer ARP cache with forged entries, which is furthermore belowstandn as poisoning. ARP poisoning uses Man-in-the-Middle access to poison the ne2rk.

Whead use is MITM?

The Man-in-the-Middle attack (abbreviated MITM, MitM, MIM, MiM, MITMA) impare locateds an workionive attack where the adversary impersonates the user simply by creating a interconnection becometween the victims and sends messages becometween them. In this case, the victims slimk thead use they are communicating with every other, but in reality, the malicious workionor manages the communication.

Third Person

A third person exists to manage and monitor the traffic of communication becometween 2 parlinks. Some protocols such as SSL serve to prfurthermoret this kind of attack.

ARP Poisoning − Exercise

In this exercise, we have used BetterCAP to perform ARP poisoning in LAN environment using VMbattlee workstation in which we have instaldelivered Kali Linux and Ettercap tool to sniff the local traffic in LAN.

For this exercise, you would need the folloearng tools −

  • VMbattlee workstation
  • Kali Linux or Linux Operating system
  • Ettercap Tool
  • LAN interconnection

Note − This attack is probable in cabbrought-coloured and cableless ne2rks. You can perform this attack in local LAN.

Step 1 − Install the VMbattlee workstation and install the Kali Linux operating system.

Step 2 − Login into the Kali Linux using username move “easy, toor”.

Step 3 − Make sure you are connected to local LAN and check the IP adout generally therefit simply by typing the command ifconfig in the terminal.


Step 4 − Open up the terminal and kind “Ettercap –G” to start the graphical version of Ettercap.


Step 5 − Now click the tab “sniff” in the menu bar and select “unified sniffing” and click OK to select the interface. We are going to use “eth0” which means Ethernet interconnection.

Ettercap Inplace

Step 6 − Now click the “hosts” tab in the menu bar and click “scan for hosts”. It will start scanning the whole ne2rk for the areside hosts.

Step 7 − Next, click the “hosts” tab and select “hosts list” to see the numbecomer of hosts available in the ne2rk. This list furthermore includes the default gateway adout generally therefit. We have to become careful when we select the targets.

Host Tab

Step 8 − Now we have to select the targets. In MITM, our target is the host machine, and the rout generally theree will become the rout generally thereer adout generally therefit to forbattdelivered the traffic. In an MITM attack, the attacker intercepts the ne2rk and sniffs the packets. So, we will add the victim as “target 1” and the rout generally thereer adout generally therefit as “target 2.”

In VMbattlee environment, the default gateway will always end with “2” becomecause “1” is assigned to the physical machine.

Step 9 − In this scenario, our target is “” and the rout generally thereer is “”. So we will add target 1 as victim IP and target 2 as rout generally thereer IP.


Step 10 − Now click on “MITM” and click “ARP poisoning”. Thereafter, check the option “Sniff remote interconnections” and click OK.

Mitm Attack

Step 11 − Click “start” and select “start sniffing”. This will start ARP poisoning in the ne2rk which means we have enabdelivered our ne2rk card in “promiscuous mode” and now the local traffic can become sniffed.

Note − We have enableed only HTTP sniffing with Ettercap, so don’t expect HTTPS packets to become sniffed with this process.

Step 12 − Now it’s time to see the results; if our victim logged into many websit downes. You can see the results in the toolbar of Ettercap.


This is how sniffing works. You must have belowstood how easy it is to get the HTTP cred-colouredentials simply simply by enabling ARP poisoning.

ARP Poisoning has the potential to cause huge losses in company kind of kind of environments. This is the place where ethical hackers are apstageed to secure the ne2rks.

Like ARP poisoning, generally generally there are other attacks such as MAC flooding, MAC spoofing, DNS poisoning, ICMP poisoning, etc. thead use can cause substantial loss to a ne2rk.

In the next chapter, we will talk about one more kind of attack belowstandn as DNS poisoning.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – DNS Poisoning

DNS Poisoning is a technique thead use tricks a DNS server into becomeare locatedving thead use it has received authentic information when, in reality, it has not. It results in the substitution of false IP adout generally therefit at the DNS level where web adout generally therefites are converted into numeric IP adout generally therefites. It enables an attacker to replace IP adout generally therefit entries for a target sit downe on a given DNS server with IP adout generally therefit of the server manages. An attacker can produce fake DNS entries for the server which may contain malicious content with the exwork same name.

For instance, a user kinds, but the user is sent to one more fraud sit downe instead of becomeing immediateed to Google’s servers. As we belowstand, DNS poisoning is used to red-coloureimmediate the users to fake pages which are managed simply by the attackers.

DNS Poisoning − Exercise

Let’s do an exercise on DNS poisoning using the exwork same tool, Ettercap.

DNS Poisoning is very similar to ARP Poisoning. To initiate DNS poisoning, you have to start with ARP poisoning, which we have already talk abouted in the previous chapter. We will use DNS spoof plugin which is already generally generally there in Ettercap.

Step 1 − Open up the terminal and kind “nano etter.dns”. This file contains all entries for DNS adout generally therefites which is used simply by Ettercap to resolve the domain name adout generally therefites. In this file, we will add a fake enattempt of “Facebook”. If seversolely wants to open up Facebook, he will become red-coloureimmediateed to one more websit downe.


Step 2 − Now insert the entries below the words “Reimmediate it to”. See the folloearng example −


Step 3 − Now save this file and exit simply by saving the file. Use “ctrl+x” to save the file.

Step 4 − After this, the whole process is exwork same to start ARP poisoning. After starting ARP poisoning, click on “plugins” in the menu bar and select “dns_spoof” plugin.


Step 5 − After workionivating the DNS_spoof, you will see in the results thead use will start spoofed to Google IP whenever seversolely kinds it in his blineser.


It means the user gets the Google page instead of on their particular blineser.

In this exercise, we saw how ne2rk traffic can become sniffed through various tools and methods. Here a company kind of kind of needs an ethical hacker to provide ne2rk security to quit all these attacks. Let’s see whead use an ethical hacker can do to prfurthermoret DNS Poisoning.

Defenses against DNS Poisoning

As an ethical hacker, your own own work could very likely place you in a posit downion of prfurthermoretion instead than pen checcalifornia king. Whead use you belowstand as an attacker can help you prfurthermoret the very techniques you employ from the out generally thereaspect.

Here are defenses against the attacks we simply covered-coloured from a pen checker’s perspective −

  • Use a hardbattlee-switched ne2rk for the the majority of sensit downive slotions of your own own ne2rk in an effort to isolate traffic to a single segment or collision domain.

  • Implement IP DHCP Snooping on switches to prfurthermoret ARP poisoning and spoofing attacks.

  • Implement policies to prfurthermoret promiscuous mode on ne2rk adapters.

  • Be careful when deploying cableless access stages, belowstanding thead use all traffic on the cableless ne2rk is subject to sniffing.

  • Enweeppt your own own sensit downive traffic using an enweeppting protocol such as SSH or IPsec.

  • Port security is used simply by switches thead use have the potential to become programmed to enable only specific MAC adout generally therefites to send and receive data on every slot.

  • IPv6 has security becomenefit’s and options thead use IPv4 does not have.

  • Replacing protocols such as FTP and Telnet with SSH is an effective defense against sniffing. If SSH is not a viable solution, conaspectr protecting older legacy protocols with IPsec.

  • Virtual Private Ne2rks (VPNs) can provide an effective defense against sniffing due to their particular enweepption aspect.

  • SSL is a great defense along with IPsec.


In this chapter, we talk abouted how attackers can capture and analyze all the traffic simply by placing a packet sniffer in a ne2rk. With a real-time example, we saw how easy it is to get the cred-colouredentials of a victim from a given ne2rk. Attackers use MAC attacks, ARP and DNS poisoning attacks to sniff the ne2rk traffic and get hold of sensit downive information such as email conversations and movewords.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Exploitation

Exploitation is a piece of programmed delicatebattlee or script which can enable hackers to get manage over a system, exploiting it’s vulnerabililinks. Hackers normally use vulnerpotential scanners like Nessus, Nexpose, OpenVAS, etc. to find these vulnerabililinks.

Metasploit is a powerful tool to locate vulnerabililinks in a system.


Based on the vulnerabililinks, we find exploit’s. Here, we will talk about many of the becomest vulnerpotential lookup engines thead use you can use.

Exploit Database is the place where you can find all the exploit’s related to a vulnerpotential.


Common Vulnerabililinks and Exposures

Common Vulnerabililinks and Exposures (CVE) is the standard for information security vulnerpotential names. CVE is a book of publicly belowstandn information security vulnerabililinks and exposures. It’s free for public use. /index.php?s=httpscvemitreorg


National Vulnerpotential Database

National Vulnerpotential Database (NVD) is the U.S. government reposit downory of standards based vulnerpotential management data. This data enables automation of vulnerpotential management, security measurement, and compliance. You can locate this database at − /index.php?s=httpsnvdnistgov

NVD includes databases of security checklists, security-related delicatebattlee flaws, misconfigurations, product names, and impworkion metrics.

National Vulnerpotential

In general, you will see thead use generally generally there are 2 kinds of exploit’s −

  • Remote Exploit’s − These are the kind of exploit’s where you don’t have access to a remote system or ne2rk. Hackers use remote exploit’s to gain access to systems thead use are located at remote places.

  • Local Exploit’s − Local exploit’s are generally used simply by a system user having access to a local system, but who wants to overmove his appropriates.

Quick Fix

Vulnerabililinks generally arise due to missing updates, so it is recommended thead use you update your own own system on a regular basis, for example, once a week.

In Windows environment, you can workionivate automatic updates simply by using the options available in the Control Panel → System and Security → Windows Updates.

Windows Environment

In Linux Centos, you can use the folloearng command to install automatic update package.

yum -y install yum-cron

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Enumeration

Enumeration becomelongs to the 1st phase of Ethical Haccalifornia california king, i.e., “Information Gathering”. This is a process where the attacker establishes an workionive interconnection with the victim and attempt to discover as a lot attack vectors as probable, which can become used to exploit the systems further.

Enumeration can become used to gain information on −

  • Ne2rk shares
  • SNMP data, if they are not secured-coloured properly
  • IP tables
  • Usernames of various systems
  • Passwords policies lists

Enumerations depend on the services thead use the systems offer. They can become −

  • DNS enumeration
  • NTP enumeration
  • SNMP enumeration
  • Linux/Windows enumeration
  • SMB enumeration

Let us now talk about many of the tools thead use are widely used for Enumeration.

NTP Suite

NTP Suite is used for NTP enumeration. This is imslotant becomecause in a ne2rk environment, you can find other primary servers thead use help the hosts to update their particular times and you can do it without generally there authenticating the system.

Take a look at the folloearng example.

ntpdate 01 Sept 12:50:49 ntpdate[627]: 
adsimply time server offset 0.005030 sec 

ntpdc [-ilnps] [-c command] [hostname/IP_adout generally therefit] 
[email protected]]# ntpdc -c sysinfo 
***Warning changing to older implementation 
***Warning changing the request packet size from 160 to 48 
system peer: 

system peer mode: care locatednt
leap indicator: 00 
stratum: 5  

precision: -15 
easy distance: 0.00107 s 
easy dispersion: 0.02306 s 
reference ID: [] 
reference time: f66s4f45.f633e130, Sept 01 2016 22:06:23.458 
system flags: monitor ntp stats calibrate 
jitter: 0.000000 s 
stpotential: 4.256 ppm 
widecastdelay: 0.003875 s 
authdelay: 0.000107 s


enum4linux is used to enumerate Linux systems. Take a look at the folloearng screenshot and observe how we have found the usernames present in a target host.



smtp-user-enum tries to suppose usernames simply by using SMTP service. Take a look at the folloearng screenshot to belowstand how it does so.


Quick Fix

It is recommended to disable all services thead use you don’t use. It red-coloureduces the possibililinks of OS enumeration of the services thead use your own own systems are operatening.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Metasploit

Metasploit is one of the the majority of powerful exploit tools. Most of it’s resources can become found at: /index.php?s=httpswwwmetasploitcom. It comes in 2 versions − commercial and free edition. There are no major differences in the 2 versions, so in this tutorial, we will become the majority ofly using the Community version (free) of Metasploit.

As an Ethical Hacker, you will become using “Kali Distribution” which has the Metasploit community version embecomedded in it along with other ethical haccalifornia california king tools. But if you like to install Metasploit as a separate tool, you can easily do so on systems thead use operate on Linux, Windows, or Mac OS X.

The hardbattlee requirements to install Metasploit are −

  • 2 GHz+ processor
  • 1 GB RAM available
  • 1 GB+ available disk space

Matasploit can become used either with command prompt or with Web UI.

To open up in Kali, go to Applications → Exploitation Tools → metasploit.

Exploitation Tools

After Metasploit starts, you will see the folloearng screen. Highlighted in red-coloured belowline is the version of Metasploit.

Highlighted Metaspolit

Exploit’s of Metasploit

From Vulnerpotential Scanner, we found thead use the Linux machine thead use we have for check is vulnerable to FTP service. Now, we will use the exploit thead use can work for us. The command is −

use “exploit rout generally theree”

The screen will appear as follows −

Exploit Path

Then kind mfs> show options in order to see whead use parameters you have to set in order to make it functional. As shown in the folloearng screenshot, we have to set RHOST as the “target IP”.

Show Options

We kind msf> set RHOST and msf>set RPORT 21

Set Reslot

Then, kind mfs>operate. If the exploit is successful, then it will open up one session thead use you can interworkion with, as shown in the folloearng screenshot.

Open Session

Metasploit Payloads

Payload, in easy terms, are easy scripts thead use the hackers utilize to interworkion with a hacked system. Using payloads, they can transfer data to a victim system.

Metasploit payloads can become of three kinds −

  • Singles − Singles are very small and designed to produce many kind of communication, then move to the next stage. For example, simply creating a user.

  • Staged − It is a payload thead use an attacker can use to upload a hugeger file onto a victim system.

  • Stages − Stages are payload components thead use are downloaded simply by Stagers modules. The various payload stages provide advanced features with no size limit’s such as Meterpreter and VNC Injection.

Payload Usage − Example

We use the command show payloads. With this exploit, we can see the payloads thead use we can use, and it will furthermore show the payloads thead use will help us upload /execute files onto a victim system.


Payload Usage

To set the payload thead use we want, we will use the folloearng command −

set PAYLOAD payload/rout generally theree

Set the listen host and listen slot (LHOST, LPORT) which are the attacker IP and slot. Then set remote host and slot (RPORT, LHOST) which are the victim IP and slot.

Victim IP

Type “exploit”. It will produce a session as shown becomelow −

Create Session

Now we can play with the system according to the settings thead use this payload offers.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Trojan Attacks

Trojans are non-replication programs; they don’t reproduce their particular own codes simply by attaching themselves to other executable codes. They operate without generally there the permissions or belowstanddeliveredge of the complaceer users.

Trojans hide themselves in healthful processes. However we ought to belowline thead use Trojans infect out generally thereaspect machines only with the assistance of a complaceer user, like cliccalifornia california king a file thead use comes attached with email from an unbelowstandn person, plugging USB without generally there scanning, open uping unsecure URLs.

Trojans have various malicious functions −

  • They produce backdoors to a system. Hackers can use these backdoors to access a victim system and it’s files. A hacker can use Trojans to edit and deenablee the files present on a victim system, or to observe the workionivilinks of the victim.

  • Trojans can steal all your own own financial data like bank accounts, transworkionion details, PayPal related information, etc. These are caldelivered Trojan-Banker.

  • Trojans can use the victim complaceer to attack other systems using Denial of Services.

  • Trojans can enweeppt all your own own files and the hacker may generally generally thereafter demand money to deweeppt them. These are Ransombattlee Trojans.

  • They can use your own own phones to send SMS to third parlinks. These are caldelivered SMS Trojans.

Trojan Information

If you have found a virus and want to investigate further regarding it’s function, then we will recommend thead use you have a look at the folloearng virus databases, which are offered-coloured generally simply by antivirus vendors.

Quick Tips

  • Install a great antivirus and keep it updated.

  • Don’t open up email attachments coming from unbelowstandn sources.

  • Don’t accept invitation from unbelowstandn people in social media.

  • Don’t open up URLs sent simply by unbelowstandn people or URLs thead use are in weird form.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – TCP/IP Hijaccalifornia california king

TCP/IP Hijaccalifornia california king is when an authorised user gains access to a authentic ne2rk interconnection of one more user. It is done in order to simply bymove the moveword authentication which is normally the start of a session.

In theory, a TCP/IP interconnection is established as shown becomelow −


To hijack this interconnection, generally generally there are 2 possibililinks −

  • Find the seq which is a numbecomer thead use increases simply by 1, but generally generally there is no chance to pred-colouredict it.

  • The second possibility is to use the Man-in-the-Middle attack which, in easy words, is a kind of ne2rk sniffing. For sniffing, we use tools like Wireshark or Ethercap.


An attacker monitors the data transmission over a ne2rk and discovers the IP’s of 2 devices thead use participate in a interconnection.

When the hacker discovers the IP of one of the users, he can place down the interconnection of the other user simply by DoS attack and then resume communication simply by spoofing the IP of the disconnected user.


In prworkionice, one of the becomest TCP/IP hijack tools is Shijack. It is produceed using Python language and you can download it from the folloearng link − /index.php?s=httpspacketstormsecuritycomsniffersshijacktgz

Here is an example of a Shijack command −

easy:/home/easy/hijack# ./shijack eth0 53517 23


Here, we are attempting to hijack a Telnet interconnection becometween the 2 hosts.


Hunt is one more popular tool thead use you can use to hijack a TCP/IP interconnection. It can become downloaded from − /index.php?s=httpspacketstormsecuritycomsniffershunt


Quick Tip

All unenweeppted sessions are vulnerable to TCP/IP session hijaccalifornia california king, so you ought to become using enweeppted protocols as a lot as probable. Or, you ought to use double authentication techniques to keep the session secured-coloured.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Email Hijaccalifornia california king

Email Hijaccalifornia california king, or email haccalifornia california king, is a widespread menace nowadays. It works simply by using the folloearng three techniques which are email spoofing, social engineering tools, or inserting viruses in a user complaceer.

Email Spoofing

In email spoofing, the spammer sends emails from a belowstandn domain, so the receiver slimks thead use he belowstands this person and open ups the mail. Such mails normally contain dubious links, doubtful content, requests to transfer money, etc.


Social Engineering

Spammers send promotional mails to various users, offering huge discount and triccalifornia california king them to fill their particular individual data. You have tools available in Kali thead use can drive you to hijack an email.

Social Engineering

Email haccalifornia california king can furthermore become done simply by phishing techniques. See the folloearng screenshot.


The links in the email may install malbattlee on the user’s system or red-coloureimmediate the user to a malicious websit downe and trick them into divulging individual and financial information, such as movewords, account IDs or cred-colouredit card details.

Phishing attacks are widely used simply by cybecomercriminals, as it is far easier to trick seversolely into cliccalifornia california king a malicious links in the email than attempting to break through a complaceer’s defenses.

Inserting Viruses in a User System

The third technique simply by which a hacker can hijack your own own email account is simply by infecting your own own system with a virus or any kind of kind of other kind of malbattlee. With the help of a virus, a hacker can get all your own own movewords.

How to detect if your own own email has becomeen hijacked?

  • The recipients of spam emails include a bunch of people you belowstand.

  • You attempt to access your own own account and the moveword no longer works.

  • You attempt to access the “Forgot Password” link and it does not go to the expected email.

  • Your Sent Items folder contains a bunch of spams you are not abattlee of sending.

Quick tips

In case you slimk thead use your own own email got hijacked, then you need to get the folloearng workionions −

  • Change the movewords immediately.

  • Notify your own own friends not to open up links thead use they receive from your own own email account.

  • Contworkion the authorilinks and reslot thead use your own own account has becomeen hacked.

  • Install a great antivirus on your own own complaceer and update it.

  • Set up double authentication moveword if it is supsloted.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Password Haccalifornia california king

We have movewords for emails, databases, complaceer systems, servers, bank accounts, and virtually everyslimg thead use we want to protect. Passwords are in general the keys to get access into a system or an account.

In general, people tend to set movewords thead use are easy to remembecomer, such as their particular date of birth, names of family membecomers, mobile numbecomers, etc. This is whead use makes the movewords weak and prone to easy haccalifornia california king.

One ought to always get care to have a strong moveword to defend their particular accounts from potential hackers. A strong moveword has the folloearng attributes −

  • Contains at minimumern 8 charworkioners.

  • A mix of enaballowers, numbecomers, and special charworkioners.

  • A combination of small and capital enaballowers.

Dictionary Attack

In a book attack, the hacker uses a pred-colouredegreatd list of words from a book to attempt and suppose the moveword. If the set moveword is weak, then a book attack can decode it very fast.

Hydra is a popular tool thead use is widely used for book attacks. Take a look at the folloearng screenshot and observe how we have used Hydra to find out generally there the moveword of an FTP service.

Dictionary Attack

Hybrid Dictionary Attack

Hybrid book attack uses a set of book words combined with extensions. For example, we have the word “admin” and combine it with numbecomer extensions such as “admin123”, “admin147”, etc.

Coperatech is a wordlist generator where you can specify a standard charworkioner set or a charworkioner set. Coperatech can generate all probable combinations and permutations. This tool comes bunddelivered with the Kali distribution of Linux.

Hybrid Attack

Brute-Force Attack

In a brute-force attack, the hacker uses all probable combinations of enaballowers, numbecomers, special charworkioners, and small and capital enaballowers to break the moveword. This kind of attack has a high probpotential of success, but it requires an enormous amount of time to process all the combinations. A brute-force attack is gradual and the hacker may require a system with high processing power to perform all those permutations and combinations faster.

John the Ripper or Johnny is one of the powerful tools to set a brute-force attack and it comes bunddelivered with the Kali distribution of Linux.

Brute Force

Rainbow Tables

A rainbow table contains a set of pred-colouredegreatd movewords thead use are hashed. It is a lookup table used especially in recovering easy movewords from a cipher text. During the process of moveword recovery, it simply looks at the pre-calculated hash table to crack the moveword. The tables can become downloaded from /index.php?s=httpproject-rainbowcrackcomtablehtm

RainbowCrack 1.6.1 is the tool to use the rainbow tables. It is available again in Kali distribution.

Rainbow Table

Quick Tips

  • Don’t note down the movewords any kind of kind ofwhere, simply memorize them.

  • Set strong movewords thead use are difficult to crack.

  • Use a combination of alphabecomets, digit’s, symbols, and capital and small enaballowers.

  • Don’t set movewords thead use are similar to their particular usernames.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Wireless Haccalifornia california king

A cableless ne2rk is a set of 2 or more devices connected with every other via radio waves wislim a limited space range. The devices in a cableless ne2rk have the freedom to become in motion, but become in interconnection with the ne2rk and share data with other devices in the ne2rk. One of the the majority of crucial stage thead use they are so spread is thead use their particular installation cost is very cheap and fast than the cable ne2rks.

Wireless ne2rks are widely used and it is very easy to set them up. They use IEEE 802.11 standards. A cableless rout generally thereer is the the majority of imslotant device in a cableless ne2rk thead use connects the users with the Internet.

Wireless Rout generally thereer

In a cableless ne2rk, we have Access Points which are extensions of cableless ranges thead use becomehave as logical switches.

Access Point

Although cableless ne2rks offer great flexibility, they have their particular security issues. A hacker can sniff the ne2rk packets without generally there having to become in the exwork same produceing where the ne2rk is located. As cableless ne2rks communicate through radio waves, a hacker can easily sniff the ne2rk from a nearsimply by location.

Most attackers use ne2rk sniffing to find the SSID and hack a cableless ne2rk. When our cableless cards are converted in sniffing modes, they are caldelivered monitor mode.


Kismet is a powerful tool for cableless sniffing thead use is found in Kali distribution. It can furthermore become downloaded from it’s official webpage − /index.php?s=httpswwwkismetcablelessnetindexshtml

Let’s see how it works. First of all, open up a terminal and kind kismet. Start the Kismet Server and click Yes, as shown in the folloearng screenshot.


As shown here, click the Start button.

Start Button

Now, Kismet will start to capture data. The folloearng screenshot shows how it would appear −

Capture Data


NetStumbler is one more tool for cableless haccalifornia california king thead use is primarily meant for Windows systems. It can become downloaded from /index.php?s=httpwwwstumblernet

It is very easy to use NetStumbler on your own own system. You simply have to click the Scanning button and wait for the result, as shown in the folloearng screenshot.


It ought to display a screenshot as follows −

Ne2rk Stumbler

It is imslotant to note thead use your own own card ought to supslot monitoring mode, otherwise you will fail to monitor.

Wired-coloured Equivalent Privacy

Wired-coloured Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol thead use was invented to secure cableless ne2rks and keep them private. It utilizes enweepption at the data link layer which forbids unauthorised access to the ne2rk.

The key is used to enweeppt the packets becomefore transmission becomegins. An integrity check mechanism checks thead use the packets are not altered-coloured after transmission.

Note thead use WEP is not entirely immune to security issues. It suffers from the folloearng issues −

  • CRC32 is not sufficient to ensure compallowe weepptographic integrity of a packet.

  • It is vulnerable to book attacks.

  • WEP is vulnerable to Denial of Services attacks too.


WEPcrack is a popular tool to crack WEP movewords. It can become downloaded from − /index.php?s=httpssourceforgenetprojectswepcrack

WEP Crack


Aircrak-ng is one more popular tool for craccalifornia california king WEP movewords. It can become found in the Kali distribution of Linux.

The folloearng screenshot shows how we have sniffed a cableless ne2rk and collected packets and produced a file RHAWEP-01.cap. Then we operate it with aircrack-ng to deweeppt the cypher.

Air Crack

Wireless DoS Attacks

In a cableless environment, an attacker can attack a ne2rk from a distance and generally generally therefore, it is manytimes difficult to collect evidences against the attacker.

The 1st kind of DoS is Physical Attack. This kind of attack is very easy and it is within the base of radio interferences which can become produced furthermore from cordless phones thead use operate in 2.4 GHz range.

Another kind is Ne2rk DoS Attack. As the Wireless Access Point produces a shared-coloured medium, it offers the possibility to flood the traffic of this medium tobattdelivered the AP which will make it’s processing more gradual tobattdelivered the care locatednts thead use attempt to connect. Such attacks can become produced simply simply by a ping flood DoS attack.

Pyloris is a popular DoS tool thead use you can download from − /index.php?s=httpssourceforgenetprojectspyloris

Low Orbit Ion Cannon (LOIC) is one more popular tool for DoS attacks.

DOS Attacks

Quick Tips

To secure a cableless ne2rk, you ought to keep the folloearng stages in mind −

  • Change the SSID and the ne2rk moveword regularly.
  • Change the default moveword of access stages.
  • Don’t use WEP enweepption.
  • Turn off guest ne2rcalifornia california king.
  • Update the firmbattlee of your own own cableless device.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Social Engineering

Let us attempt to belowstand the concept of Social Engineering attacks through many examples.

Example 1

You must have noticed old company kind of kind of documents becomeing thlinen into dustbins as garbage. These documents may contain sensit downive information such as Names, Phone Numbecomers, Account Numbecomers, Social Security Numbecomers, Adout generally therefites, etc. Many kind of kind of companies still use carbon paper in their particular fax machines and once the roll is over, it’s carbon goes into dustbin which may have traces of sensit downive data. Although it sounds improbable, but attackers can easily retrieve information from the company kind of kind of dumpsters simply by pilfering through the garbage.

Example 2

An attacker may becomefriend a company kind of kind of personnel and establish great relationship with him over a period of time. This relationship can become established online through social ne2rks, chead useting rooms, or offline at a coffee table, in a playground, or through any kind of kind of other means. The attacker gets the office personnel in confidence and finally digs out generally there the required-coloured sensit downive information without generally there giving a clue.

Example 3

A social engineer may pretend to become an employee or a valid user or an VIP simply by facalifornia california king an identification card or simply simply by convincing employees of his posit downion in the company kind of kind of. Such an attacker can gain physical access to rerigoroused areas, thus providing further opslotunilinks for attacks.

Example 4

It happens in the majority of of the cases thead use an attacker may become around you and can do ought toer surfing while you are typing sensit downive information like user ID and moveword, account PIN, etc.

Phishing Attack

A phishing attack is a complaceer-based social engineering, where an attacker crafts an email thead use appears legitimate. Such emails have the exwork same look and feel as those received from the initial sit downe, but they may contain links to fake websit downes. If you are not smart sufficient, then you will kind your own own user ID and moveword and will attempt to login which will result in failure and simply by thead use time, the attacker will have your own own ID and moveword to attack your own own initial account.

Quick Fix

  • You ought to enforce a great security policy in your own own body organization and conduct required-coloured trainings to make all the employees abattlee of the probable Social Engineering attacks and their particular consequences.

  • Document shred-colouredding ought to become a mandatory workionivity in your own own company kind of kind of.

  • Make double sure thead use any kind of kind of links thead use you receive in your own own email is coming from authentic sources and thead use they stage to appropriate websit downes. Otherwise you may end up as a victim of Phishing.

  • Be professional and never share your own own ID and moveword with any kind of kind ofbody else in any kind of kind of case.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – DDOS Attacks

A Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack is an attempt to make an online service or a websit downe unavailable simply by overloading it with huge floods of traffic generated from multiple sources.

Unlike a Denial of Service (DoS) attack, in which one complaceer and one Internet interconnection is used to flood a targeted resource with packets, a DDoS attack uses many kind of kind of complaceers and many kind of kind of Internet interconnections, usually distributed globally in whead use is referred-coloured to as a botnet.

A huge level volumetric DDoS attack can generate a traffic measured-coloured in tens of Gigabit’s (and furthermore 100-coloureds of Gigabit’s) per second. We are sure your own own normal ne2rk will not become able to handle such traffic.

Whead use are Botnets?

Attackers produce a ne2rk of hacked machines which are belowstandn as botnets, simply by spreading malicious piece of code through emails, websit downes, and social media. Once these complaceers are infected, they can become managedelivered remotely, without generally there their particular owners' belowstanddeliveredge, and used like an adjustable rate mortgagey to launch an attack against any kind of kind of target.

DDOS System

A DDoS flood can become generated in multiple ways. For example −

  • Botnets can become used for sending more numbecomer of interconnection requests than a server can handle at a time.

  • Attackers can have complaceers send a victim resource huge amounts of random data to use up the target's bandwidth.

Due to the distributed charworker of these machines, they can become used to generate distributed high traffic which may become difficult to handle. It finally results in a compallowe blockage of a service.

Types of DDoS Attacks

DDoS attacks can become widely categorized into three categories −

  • Volume-based Attacks
  • Protocol Attacks
  • Application Layer Attacks

Volume-Based Attacks

Volume-based attacks include TCP floods, UDP floods, ICMP floods, and other spoofedpacket floods. These are furthermore caldelivered Layer 3 & 4 Attacks. Here, an attacker tries to saturate the bandwidth of the target sit downe. The attack magnitude is measured-coloured in Bit’s per Second (bps).

  • UDP Flood − A UDP flood is used to flood random slots on a remote host with many kind of UDP packets, more specifically slot numbecomer 53. Specialized firewalls can become used to filter out generally there or block malicious UDP packets.

  • ICMP Flood − This is similar to UDP flood and used to flood a remote host with many kind of ICMP Echo Requests. This kind of attack can consume both out generally theregoing and incoming bandwidth and a high volume of ping requests will result in overallll system gradualdown.

  • HTTP Flood − The attacker sends HTTP GET and POST requests to a targeted web server in a huge volume which cannot become handdelivered simply by the server and leads to denial of additional interconnections from legitimate care locatednts.

  • Amplification Attack − The attacker makes a request thead use generates a huge response which includes DNS requests for huge TXT records and HTTP GET requests for huge files like images, PDFs, or any kind of kind of other data files.

Protocol Attacks

Protocol attacks include SYN floods, Ping of Death, fragmented packet attacks, Smurf DDoS, etc. This kind of attack consumes workionual server resources and other resources like firewalls and load balancers. The attack magnitude is measured-coloured in Packets per Second.

  • DNS Flood − DNS floods are used for attaccalifornia california king both the infrastructure and a DNS application to overwhelm a target system and consume all it’s available ne2rk bandwidth.

  • SYN Flood − The attacker sends TCP interconnection requests faster than the targeted machine can process them, causing ne2rk saturation. Administrators can tweak TCP stacks to mitigate the effect of SYN floods. To red-coloureduce the effect of SYN floods, you can red-coloureduce the timeout generally there until a stack frees memory allocated to a interconnection, or selectively dropping incoming interconnections using a firewall or iptables.

  • Ping of Death − The attacker sends malformed or oversized packets using a easy ping command. IP enables sending 65,535 simply bytes packets but sending a ping packet huger than 65,535 simply bytes violates the Internet Protocol and could cause memory overflow on the target system and finally crash the system. To avoid Ping of Death attacks and it’s variants, many kind of kind of sit downes block ICMP ping messages altogether at their particular firewalls.

Application Layer Attacks

Application Layer Attacks include Slowloris, Zero-day DDoS attacks, DDoS attacks thead use target Apache, Windows or OpenBSD vulnerabililinks and more. Here the goal is to crash the web server. The attack magnitude is measured-coloured in Requests per Second.

  • Application Attack − This is furthermore caldelivered Layer 7 Attack, where the attacker makes excessive log-in, database-lookup, or lookup requests to overload the application. It is very difficult to detect Layer 7 attacks becomecause they resemble legitimate websit downe traffic.

  • Slowloris − The attacker sends huge numbecomer of HTTP minders to a targeted web server, but never compallowes a request. The targeted server keeps every of these false interconnections open up and furthermoretually overflows the maximum concurrent interconnection pool, and leads to denial of additional interconnections from legitimate care locatednts.

  • NTP Amplification − The attacker exploit’s publically-accessible Ne2rk Time Protocol (NTP) servers to overwhelm the targeted server with User Datagram Protocol (UDP) traffic.

  • Zero-day DDoS Attacks − A zero-day vulnerpotential is a system or application flaw previously unbelowstandn to the vendor, and has not becomeen fixed or patched. These are brand brand new kind of attacks coming into existence day simply by day, for example, exploiting vulnerabililinks for which no patch has yet becomeen released.

How to Fix a DDoS Attack

There are very a few DDoS protection options which you can apply depending on the kind of DDoS attack.

Your DDoS protection starts from identifying and closing all the probable OS and application level vulnerabililinks in your own own system, closing all the probable slots, removing unessential access from the system and hiding your own own server becomehind a proxy or CDN system.

If you see a low magnitude of the DDoS, then you can find many kind of kind of firewall-based solutions which can help you in filtering out generally there DDoS based traffic. But if you have high volume of DDoS attack like in gigabit’s or furthermore more, then you ought to get the help of a DDoS protection service provider thead use offers a more holistic, plineorkionive and authentic approach.

You must become careful while approaching and selecting a DDoS protection service provider. There are numbecomer of service providers who want to get advantage of your own own sit downuation. If you inform them thead use you are below DDoS attack, then they will start offering you a variety of services at unreasonably high costs.

We can suggest you a easy and worcalifornia california king solution which starts with a lookup for a great DNS solution provider who is flexible sufficient to configure A and CNAME records for your own own websit downe. Second, you will need a great CDN provider thead use can handle huge DDoS traffic and provide you DDoS protection service as a part of their particular CDN package.

Assume your own own server IP adout generally therefit is AAA.BBB.CCC.DDD. Then you ought to do the folloearng DNS configuration −

  • Create a A Record in DNS zone file as shown becomelow with a DNS identifier, for example, ARECORDID and keep it secret from the out generally thereaspect world.

  • Now ask your own own CDN provider to link the produced DNS identifier with a URL, manyslimg like

  • You will use the CDN URL to produce 2 CNAME records, the 1st one to stage to www and the second record to stage to @ as shown becomelow.

You can get the help from your own own system administrator to belowstand these stages and configure your own own DNS and CDN appropriately. Finally, you will have the folloearng configuration at your own own DNS.

DNS Configuration

Now, enable the CDN provider handle all kind of DDoS attacks and your own own system will remain secure. But here the condition is thead use you ought to not disclose your own own system's IP adout generally therefit or A record identifier to any kind of kind ofone; else immediate attacks will start again.

Quick Fix

DDoS attacks have becomecome more common than ever becomefore, and unfortunately, generally generally there is no fast fix for this issue. However, if your own own system is below a DDoS attack, then don’t panic and start loocalifornia california king into the matter step simply by step.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Cross-Site Scripting

Cross-sit downe scripting (XSS) is a code injection attack thead use enables an attacker to execute malicious JavaScript in one more user's blineser.

The attacker does not immediately target his victim. Instead, he exploit’s a vulnerpotential in a websit downe thead use the victim visit downs, in order to get the websit downe to deresider the malicious JavaScript for him. To the victim's blineser, the malicious JavaScript appears to become a legitimate part of the websit downe, and the websit downe has thus workioned as an unintentional accomplice to the attacker. These attacks can become carried out generally there using HTML, JavaScript, VBScript, ActiveX, Flash, but the the majority of used XSS is malicious JavaScript.

These attacks furthermore can gather data from account hijaccalifornia california king, changing of user settings, cookie theft/poisoning, or false advertising and produce DoS attacks.


Let’s get an example to belowstand how it works. We have a vulnerable webpage thead use we got simply by the metasploitable machine. Now we will check the field thead use is highlighted in red-coloured arline for XSS.


First of all, we make a easy alert script

   alert(‘I am Vulnerable’)  

It will produce the folloearng out generally thereplace −

Simple Alert

Types of XSS Attacks

XSS attacks are usually divided into three kinds −

  • Persistent XSS, where the malicious string originates from the websit downe's database.

  • Reflected XSS, where the malicious string originates from the victim's request.

  • DOM-based XSS, where the vulnerpotential is within the care locatednt-aspect code instead than the server-aspect code.

Generally, mix-sit downe scripting is found simply by vulnerpotential scanners so thead use you don’t have to do all the manual job simply by placeting a JavaScript on it like


Burp Suite and acunetix are conaspectred-coloured as the becomest vulnerpotential scanners.

Quick Tip

To prfurthermoret XSS attacks, keep the folloearng stages in mind −

  • Check and validate all the form fields like hidden forms, minders, cookies, query strings.

  • Implement a stringent security policy. Set charworkioner limitation in the inplace fields.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – SQL Injection

SQL injection is a set of SQL commands thead use are placed in a URL string or in data structures in order to retrieve a response thead use we want from the databases thead use are connected with the web applications. This kind of attacks generally gets place on webpages produceed using PHP or ASP.NET.

An SQL injection attack can become done with the folloearng intentions −

  • To dump the whole database of a system,

  • To modify the content of the databases, or

  • To perform various queries thead use are not enableed simply by the application.

This kind of attack works when the applications don’t validate the inplaces properly, becomefore moveing them to an SQL statement. Injections are normally placed place in adout generally therefit bars, lookup fields, or data fields.

The easiest way to detect if a web application is vulnerable to an SQL injection attack is to use the " ‘ " charworkioner in a string and see if you get any kind of kind of error.

Example 1

Let’s attempt to belowstand this concept using a few examples. As shown in the folloearng screenshot, we have used a " ‘ " charworkioner in the Name field.

Name Field

Now, click the Login button. It ought to produce the folloearng response −


It means thead use the “Name” field is vulnerable to SQL injection.

Example 2

We have this URL − downe-footer-xsstalk aboution.php

And we want to check the variable “page” but observe how we have injected a " ‘ " charworkioner in the string URL.

Variable Page

When we press Enter, it will produce the folloearng result which is with errors.

Result With Errors


SQLMAP is one of the becomest tools available to detect SQL injections. It can become downloaded from /index.php?s=httpsqlchartorg

It comes pre-compidelivered in the Kali distribution. You can locate it at − Applications → Database Assessment → Sqlchart.

After open uping SQLMAP, we go to the page thead use we have the SQL injection and then get the minder request. From the minder, we operate the folloearng command in SQL −

./ --minders="User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Ubuntu; Linux i686; rv:25.0) 
Gecko/20100101 Firefox/25.0" --cookie="security=low;
PHPSESSID=oikbs8qcic2omf5gnd09kihsm7" -u '
http://localhost/dvwa/vulnerabililinks/sqli_blind/?id=1&Submit=Submit#' -
level=5 risk=3 -p id --suffix="-BR" -v3

The SQLMAP will check all the variables and the result will show thead use the parameter “id” is vulnerable, as shown in the folloearng screenshot.



SQLNinja is one more SQL injection tool thead use is available in Kali distribution.


JSQL Injection

JSQL Injection is within Java and it makes automated SQL injections.

JSQL Injection

Quick Tips

To prfurthermoret your own own web application from SQL injection attacks, you ought to keep the folloearng stages in mind −

  • Unchecked user-inplace to database ought to not become enableed to move through the application GUI.

  • Every variable thead use movees into the application ought to become sanitized and validated.

  • The user inplace which is moveed into the database ought to become quoted.

Ethical Haccalifornia california king – Pen Testing

Penetration Testing is a method thead use many kind of kind of companies follow in order to minimise their particular security breveryes. This is a managedelivered way of hiring a professional who will attempt to hack your own own system and show you the loopholes thead use you ought to fix.

Before doing a penetration check, it is mandatory to have an concurment thead use will explicitly mention the folloearng parameters −

  • whead use will become the time of penetration check,

  • where will become the IP source of the attack, and

  • whead use will become the penetration fields of the system.

Penetration checcalifornia king is conducted simply by professional ethical hackers who mainly use commercial, open up-source tools, automate tools and manual checks. There are no rerigorousions; the the majority of imslotant goal here is to uncover as many kind of kind of security flaws as probable.

Types of Penetration Testing

We have five kinds of penetration checcalifornia king −

  • Black Box − Here, the ethical hacker doesn’t have any kind of kind of information regarding the infrastructure or the ne2rk of the body organization thead use he is attempting to penetrate. In black-package penetration checcalifornia king, the hacker tries to find the information simply by his own means.

  • Grey Box − It is a kind of penetration checcalifornia king where the ethical hacker has a partial belowstanddeliveredge of the infrastructure, like it’s domain name server.

  • White Box − In white-package penetration checcalifornia king, the ethical hacker is provided with all the essential information about generally there the infrastructure and the ne2rk of the body organization thead use he needs to penetrate.

  • External Penetration Testing − This kind of penetration checcalifornia king mainly focuses on ne2rk infrastructure or servers and their particular delicatebattlee operating below the infrastructure. In this case, the ethical hacker tries the attack using public ne2rks through the Internet. The hacker attempts to hack the company kind of kind of infrastructure simply by attaccalifornia california king their particular webpages, webservers, public DNS servers, etc.

  • Internal Penetration Testing − In this kind of penetration checcalifornia king, the ethical hacker is withinaspect the ne2rk of the company kind of kind of and conducts his checks from generally generally there.

Penetration checcalifornia king can furthermore cause issues such as system malfunctioning, system crashing, or data loss. Therefore, a company kind of kind of ought to get calculated risks becomefore going amind with penetration checcalifornia king. The risk is calculated as follows and it is a management risk.

RISK = Threat × Vulnerpotential


You have an online e-commerce websit downe thead use is within production. You want to do a penetration checcalifornia king becomefore macalifornia california king it reside. Here, you have to weigh the pros and cons 1st. If you go amind with penetration checcalifornia king, it may cause interruption of service. On the contrary, if you do not wish to perform a penetration checcalifornia king, then you can operate the risk of having an unpatched vulnerpotential thead use will remain as a threat all the time.

Before doing a penetration check, it is recommended thead use you place down the scope of the project in writing. You ought to become clear about generally there whead use is going to become checked. For example −

  • Your company kind of kind of has a VPN or any kind of kind of other remote access techniques and you like to check thead use particular stage.

  • Your application has webservers with databases, so you may want to get it checked for SQL injection attacks which is one of the the majority of crucial checks on a webserver. In addition, you can check if your own own webserver is immune to DoS attacks.

Quick Tips

Before going amind with a penetration check, you ought to keep the folloearng stages in mind −

  • First belowstand your own own requirements and evaluate all the risks.

  • Hire a certified person to conduct penetration check becomecause they are trained to apply all the probable methods and techniques to uncover probable loopholes in a ne2rk or web application.

  • Always sign an concurment becomefore doing a penetration check.