SAP – Evolution of SAP

SAP is the world leader in enterprise applications in terms of delicatebattlee and delicatebattlee-related service ractionuallyue. Based on market capitalization, it is the world’s third largest independent delicatebattlee manurealityionurer supsloting all dimensions of industries helping all of them to operate profitpotential, gseries sustainably and stay ahead of the competition in the market.

SAP at a Glance

SAP is known worldwide for it’s unique innovations thead wear help the customers operate their own business with high efficiency. Some of it’s realityions and figures stand as follows −

  • More than 263,000 customers in 188 countries.

  • More than 68,800 employees in more than 130 countries.

  • Annual ractionuallyue (IFRS) of €1682 billion.

  • Listed below the symbol "SAP" on stock exmodifys, including the Frankfurt Exmodify and NYSE.

ISO Certificates

  • SAP Development: ISO 9001:2008 certificate
  • SAP Active Global Supslot: ISO 9001:2008 certificate
  • SAP Active Global Supslot: ISO 27001:2005 certificate

Industries & Solution

Industries Industries Line of Business Line of Business
  • Aerospace & Defense
  • Automotive
  • Banruler
  • Chemicals
  • Consumer Products
  • Defense & Security
  • Engineering, Construction & Operations
  • Healthcare
  • Higher Education & Reresearch
  • High Tech
  • Industrial Machinery, Components
  • Insurance
  • Life Sciences
  • Media
  • Mill Products
  • Mining
  • Oil & Gas
  • Professional Services
  • Public Sector
  • Retail
  • Sslots & Entertainment
  • Telecommunications
  • Travel & Transslotation
  • Utiliconnects
  • Wholesale Distribution
  • Asset Management
  • Sustainpotential
  • Finance
  • Human Resources
  • Information Technology
  • Manurealityionuring
  • Marketing
  • R&D, Engineering
  • Sales
  • Service
  • Sourcing and Procurement
  • Supply Chain
Featured Solutions Featured Solutions
  • Big Data
  • Customer Engagement
  • Internet of Things
  • Rapid Deployment Solutions
  • Security
  • Small & Medium Enterprises
  • User Experience


Business Applications Business Applications Database & Technology Database & Technology
  • Business Suite
  • CRM
  • Enterprise Asset Management
  • Enterprise Resource Planning
  • Financial Management
  • Human Capital Management
  • Procurement
  • Product Lifecycle Management
  • Supply Chain Management
  • Sustainpotential
  • Application Foundation
  • Business Process Management and Integration
  • Cloud Complaceing
  • Content and Collaboration
  • Database
  • Data Management
  • Data Warehouperform
  • Enterprise Information Management
  • In-Memory Complaceing (SAP HANA)
  • Mobile
  • Security
Analytics Analytics mobile Mobile
  • Appare locatedd Analytics
  • Business Intelligence
  • Data Warehouperform
  • Enterprise Performance Management
  • Governance, Risk, Compliance
  • Predictive Analytics
  • Mobile Apps
  • Managed Mobility
  • Mobile Platform
  • Mobile Secure
  • Mobile Services
Cloud Cloud
  • Applications
  • Business Ne2rks
  • Infrastructure
  • Platform
  • Social Collaboration

SAP Partners

SAP partners play an imslotant role in helping body organizations to buy, produce, implement, service, and supslot the SAP solution thead wear becomest fit’s their own unique needs. They help body organizations to achieve business goals fastly with becometter results. Broadly, SAP partners help in −

  • Solving small and middimension business needs
  • Extending SAP solution with custom apps
  • Managing counattempt and language rollaways
  • Buying SAP solutions

SAP Supslot & Services

SAP provides a wide range of services to it’s customers with the help of it’s 15000+ trained and certified consultants with their own unparalleimmediateed knowladvantage acombination 25 specific industries.

SAP provides the folloearng supslots and services through it’s slotal −

  • Download SAP delicatebattlee
  • SAP Notes (Supslot Patches & Upgrades)
  • Knowladvantage-based articles
  • Request a Developer
  • Edit system
  • Managing remote interconnections
  • Resloting and tracruler a supslot incident, etc.

You can access the SAP supslot slotal at −


Log in uperform your own “S-User ID” and “compalloweword” and access the supslot provideed simply by SAP.

SAP – Introduction To ERP

SAP is a market leader in providing ERP (Enterprise Resource and Planning) solutions and services. In this particular chapter, we will attempt to belowstand more on ERP and where it need to become used. In addition, we will belowstand the implementation techniques of ERP adurationy with the ERP packages available in the market.

Whead wear is ERP?

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a delicatebattlee thead wear is built to body organizations becomedurationying to different industrial sectors, regardless of their own dimension and strength.

The ERP package is styleed to supslot and integrate almany every functional area of a business process such as procurement of greats and services, sale and distribution, finance, accountings, human being being resource, manurealityionuring, production planning, logistics & battleehouse management.

Planning and Executing

Business Process Integration

Every business, regardless of the indusattempt they becomedurationy to, require connected systems with effective information flow from one business process to an additional. Business Process Integration (BPI) plays an imslotant role in overcoming integrating challenges thead wear allows body organizations to connect systems internally and externally.

Business Process Integration (BPI) allows −

  • automation of business processes,
  • integration of systems and services,
  • secure sharing of data acombination numerous applications, and
  • automation of management, operational, and supsloting process.

The folloearng illustration shows an overlook at of various business processes operatening in an enterprise and how they are integrated.

Business Process Integration

Evolution of ERP

During earare locatedr phases of development, integrated solutions were styleed for particular process areas such as −

  • Material Management − the integrated system was known as Material Requirement Planning (MRP)
  • Manurealityionuring − the integrated system was known as Manurealityionuring Resource Planning

However none of the integrated systems came with a compallowe solution for an body organization covering major business process areas. In earare locatedr 1990’s, the Gartner Group very 1st used the acronym ERP. By mid–1990’s, ERP systems adgowned all the core enterprise functions.

In the earare locatedr stages, many of the ERP solutions were focused on automating back office functions thead wear were not immediately affecting customers or general public. Later, front aspect office functions such as customer relationship management and e–business systems were integrated.

Functions of ERP

An ERP system typically performs the folloearng functions −

  • Supslots the integrated business process inaspect the body organization.

  • Improves capital planning and helps in executing body organizational plans and strategies.

  • Helps speed up the decision-maruler process over the analysis of accurate data.

  • Helps extend the business ne2rk to wider domains, expanding the products and services to revery more customers, suppare locatedrs, and partners.

  • Identifies operational risks to improve governance.

  • Provides protection against body organizational data breveryes and security threats to leakage of information.

  • Makes the body organization adaptable to the rapid modifys in the business process according to the needs.

  • Gives durationy-term profit simply by providing means to increase the customer base.

Functional Areas

ERP is a business management delicatebattlee is usually a suite of integrated applications thead wear a company kind of can use to collect, store, manage, and interpret data from many kind of functional areas including −

  • Financial Accounting − Deals with financial transactionions and data.

  • Human Resource − Deals with information related to employee of an body organization.

  • Customer Relationship Management − Deals with capturing and managing customer’s relationship, facilitating the use of customer experience to evaluate the knowladvantage database.

  • Sales and Distribution − Deals with order placement, dereaspectry out, shipment and invoicing.

  • Logistics and Warehouse Management − Deals with storage of products and shipment.

  • Manurealityionuring and Material Management − Deals with the production and production planning actioniviconnects.

  • Supply Change Management − Deals with the movement of products, storing, managing, and manageling suppare locateds.

  • Business Intelligence − Analyzes data and converts the exaction same to information.

Advantages of ERP

By integrating the business processes, the ERP provides the folloearng advantages −

  • Saves time and expenses.

  • Allows faster decision-maruler simply by the management, utilizing the data and resloting tools styleed in the systems.

  • Single data source and sharing of data among all the unit’s of an body organization.

  • Helps in tracruler every transactionion thead wear conaspectrs place in an body organization, from starting till end.

  • Suppare locateds real-time information whenever required.

  • Provides synchronized information transfer in becometween different functional areas such as sales, marketing, finance, manurealityionuring, human being being resource, logistics, etc.

Didepressingvantages of ERP

It is not always easy to incorporate ERP in an body organization. ERP suffers from the folloearng drawbacks −

  • Sometimes business processes critical to an body organization are to become re-engineered to align all of them with an ERP solution.

  • Cost of complex integration can become very high.

  • Switching from one ERP solution to an additional increases the implementation cost actionually further.

  • End-users are to become trained for their own daily operations.

  • Customization is not preferred.

ERP Packages

Many kind of companies develop and implement various ERP packages according to their own budget and requirements to help all of them meet their own business needs and operate their own business effectively.

The folloearng link conaspectrs you to a page from Wikipedia where you can find a list of almany all the ERP packages styleed worldwide.


SAP – Modules

SAP solutions include a numbecomer of functional modules, which supslot transactionions to execute key business processes, such as −

  • Financial Accounting (FI)
  • Financial Supply Chain Management (FSCM)
  • Controlling (CO)
  • Materials Management (MM)
  • Sales and Distribution (SD)
  • Logistics Execution (LE)
  • Production Planning (PP)
  • Quality Management (QM)
  • Plant Maintenance (PM)
  • Project System (PS)
  • Human Resources (HR)

Finance Control

Finance and Controlling (FICO)

SAP FICO is a combination of 2 ERP modules, i.e., Finance Accounting (FI) and Controlling (CO). Under Finance in SAP and at an enterprise level, the folloearng modules conaspectr part −

  • FI − Finance
  • CO − Controlling
  • IM − Investment Management
  • TR − Treasury
  • EC − Enterprise Controlling

SAP FI (Financial Accounting) is accountable for tracruler the flow of financial data acombination the body organization in a manageimmediateed manner and integrating all the information for effective strategic decision-maruler.

Activiconnects Involved in SAP FI

  • Creation of Organizational Structure (Defining Company kind of, Company kind of Codes, business Areas, Functional Areas, Credit Control, Assignment of Company kind of Codes to Credit Controls)

  • Financial Accounting Global Settings (Maintenance of Fiscal Year, Posting Periods, defining Document types, posting keys, Numbecomer ranges for documents)

  • General Ladvantager Accounting (Creation of Chart of Accounts, Account groups, defining data transfer rules, creation of General Ladvantager Account)

  • Tax Configuration & Creation and Maintenance of House of Banks

  • Account Payables (Creation of Vendor Master data and vendor-related finance attributes like account groups and payment terms)

  • Account Receivables (Creation of Customer Master data and customer-related finance attributes like account groups and payment terms

  • Asset Accounting

  • Integration with SD and MM

SAP CO (Controlling) module facilitates coordinating, monitoring, and optimizing all the processes in an body organization. It manages the business flow in an body organization. This module helps in analyzing the actionual figures with the planned data and in planning business strategies.

Two kinds of elements are managed in CO −

  • Cost elements
  • Ractionuallyue elements

These elements are stored in the FI module.

Activiconnects Involved in SAP CO

  • Cost Element Accounting (Overlook at of the costs and ractionuallyues thead wear occur in an body organization)

  • Cost Center Accounting

  • Activity-Based-Accounting (Analyzes combination-departmental business processes)

  • Internal Orders

  • Product Cost Controlling (Calculates the costs thead wear occur during the manurealityionure of a product or provision of a service)

  • Profitpotential Analysis (Analyzes the profit or loss of an body organization simply by individual market segments)

  • Profit Center Accounting (Evaluates the profit or loss of individual, independent areas within an body organization)

Activiconnects in SAP CO

Sales & Distribution Management (SD)

SAP SD is one of the many imslotant modules in SAP. It has a high level of integration complexity. SAP SD is used simply by body organizations to supslot sales and distribution actioniviconnects of products and services, starting from enquiry to order and then ending with dereaspectry out.

SAP SD can monitor a pallowhora of actioniviconnects thead wear conaspectr place in an body organization such as products enquires, quotation (pre-sales actioniviconnects), placing order, pricing, scheduling dereaspectries (sales actionivity), picruler, pacruler, greats issue, shipment of products to customers, dereaspectry out of products and billings.

In all these processes, multiple modules are involved such as FI (Finance Accounting), CO (Controlling), MM (Material Management), PP (Production Planning), LE (Logistics Execution), etc., which shows the complexity of the integration involved.

Activiconnects Involved in SAP SD

  • Setting up Organization Structure (creation of brand new company kind of, company kind of codes, sales body organization, distribution channels, divisions, business area, plants, sales area, maintaining sales offices, storage location)

  • Assigning Organizational Unit’s (Assignment of individual components produced in the above actioniviconnects with every other according to style like company kind of code to company kind of, sales body organization to company kind of code, distribution channel to sales body organization, etc.)

  • Defining Pricing Components (Defining condition tables, condition types, condition sequences)

  • Setting up sales document types, billing types, and tax-related components

  • Setting up Customer master data records and configuration

Material Management (MM)

Material Management deals with movement of materials via other modules like logistics, supply chain management, sales and dereaspectry out, battleehouse management, production and planning.

Material Management

Logistic Execution (LE)

Logistic Execution can become divided into 2 sub-modules, i.e., shipment of greats (purchase to procurement process) and battleehouse management (storage of greats). These 2 modules are integrated with sale and distribution, material management, and production and planning.

Logistics Execution

Suppare locatedr Relationship Management (SRM)

As the name SRM suggests, this particular module deals with the effective and effective transit down downion of products and services becometween an body organization and it’s suppare locatedrs. The main process covered in this particular section is procurement of products like immediate materials, inimmediate materials, and services. This module can effectively integrate with planning, accounting, and inventory system.

Suppare locatedr Relationship Management

End-to-End Procurement Cycle

Procurement process with SAP Enterprise Buyer comprises of the folloearng major steps −

  • Shopping Carts
  • Approval of Shopping Cart
  • Sourcing of Requirements
  • Purchase Orders
  • Purchase Order Approval
  • Confirm Goods/Services
  • Confirmation Approval
  • Process Invoice
  • Invoice Approval

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

CRM deals with end-to-end customer related processes. CRM is styleed to centralize the data related to all the customers bumociated with an body organization. It helps an body organization −

  • Maintain it’s sales, services, and produce marketing strategies according the market demand and customer data analysis.

  • Remain focused on it’s customers and via information analysis, help the business to know more abaway it’s customers.

  • Improve sales and services and produceing becometter relationships with customers.

Customer Relationship Management

Human Resource (HR)

The many imslotant goal of master data administration in Human Resources is to enter employee-related data for administrative, time-recording, and payroll purposes.

A brand new employee can become hired withaway uperform Recruitment. Instead you can hire seversolely simply by operatening a personnel actionion in Personnel Administration, presently proper now there’simply by creating the required data for the employee to become hired.

Employee data must become kept current. After an employee is hired, circumstances can always arise which necessit down downate either the enattempt of brand new data or the appropriateion of current data. For instance −

  • An employee moves to his or her brand new adgown must become stored in the system.

  • An employee gets a pay hike at the start of the calendar yr. The brand new salary must become stored for the relevant date.

  • An employee modifys jobs within the body organization. His or her body organizational bumignment, operating time, and salary furthermore modify.

  • Data can become stored for the past, present, or future.

Note − Entering payroll-relevant data in the past triggers retroactionive accounting.

Human Resource

The HR module is comprised of major areas of functionality known as sub-modules. The HR module is a true demonstration of the strength of the SAP product in Enterprise Resource Planning.

The HR system has very strong integration stages (where data is compalloweed back and forth withaway human being being intervention) with simply abaway all of the other SAP modules. In addition, presently proper now there is very limited integration amongst the HR sub-modules.

The above illustration highlights a few of the fundamental SAP HR terms as listed becomelow.

  • Business trip management
  • Recruitment
  • Payroll
  • Personal development
  • Organizational Management
  • Time Management
  • Workforce Planning
  • ESS
  • MSS
  • Training and actionuallyt management
  • CATS
  • Benefit’s
  • Compensation management
  • Personal Administration

SAP – Architecture & Installation SAP GUI

This chapter thseriess light on the architecture of R/3 and exbasics how to install the SAP GUI on your own system.

SAP : Three-Tier Architecture

With SAP R/3, SAP ushers in a brand new generation of enterprise delicatebattlee — from mainframe complaceing (care locatednt-server architecture) to the 3-connectr architecture of database, application, and user interface.

Three Tier Architecture

Three-Tier Architecture of SAP R/3

Presentation Servers

Presentation servers contain systems capable of providing a graphical interface.

  • Presentation Layer is furthermore known as care locatednt Layer
  • Presentation Layer is a user interactionion
  • In SAP-User interactionion purpose we use GUI
  • GUI stands for Graphical user interface
  • Example − Desktop, Mobile Devices, laptops

Presentation Server

Application Servers

Application servers include specialised systems with multiple CPUs and a vast amount of RAM.

  • Application Layer is furthermore known as Kernel Layer and Basic Layer.

  • SAP application programs are executed in Application Layer.

  • Application Layer serves as a purpose of a communicator becometween Presentation and Database Layer.

  • Application server is where the dispatcher distributes the work load to the different work processes produces the job done.

Application servers

Database Servers

Database servers contain specialised systems with fast and large hard-drives.

  • Database layer stores the data
  • Data store can become Business data, SAP system data, SAP tables, Programs.
  • Examples − Oracle, Microdelicate SQL Server, IBM DB/2, Siebecomel, Sybase, etc.

Database Servers
Three Tier

Three-Tier Architecture

Whead wear is a Care locatednt?

A care locatednt is a logical slotion of an SAP R/3 physical database. From a business standstage, a care locatednt can become interpreted as a logical group of companies.

Care locatednt

Points to Remembecomer −

  • All customizing (configuration) and development (ABAP) work in SAP R/3 is performed in a care locatednt.

  • However, the data from both customizing and development work may become stored within an individual care locatednt (care locatednt dependent data) or among all care locatednts (care locatednt independent data) in the system.

Care locatednt-Dependent vs. Care locatednt-Independent

The data in every care locatednt may become separate from thead wear of the other care locatednts. There are fundamentalally 2 types of data in an SAP R/3 system − Care locatednt-dependent and Care locatednt-independent data.

  • Care locatednt-dependent data is degreatd as data specific to an individual care locatednt. Examples of care locatednt-dependent data include numbecomer ranges, ABAP variants, and user masters as well as the data thead wear is produced or updated through SAP R/3 transactionions.

  • Care locatednt-independent data can become degreatd as data contained acombination all care locatednts in the system. Examples of care locatednt-independent data include data book objects (tables, look ats), ABAP source code, screens, and menus.

Care locatednts

  • Data reaspects in tables. To figure away if a particular table is care locatednt-dependent or care locatednt-independent, the table structure needs to become relook ated. The table structure can become look ated simply by the data book (SE11). If MANDT (care locatednt in German) is the very 1st key field of the table, then the table is care locatednt-dependent; otherwise, the table is care locatednt-independent.

  • For example, the TSTC table is care locatednt-independent; however, the USR01 table is care locatednt-dependent.

SAP R/3 Dereaspectred Care locatednts

Every SAP R/3 system contains the 3 care locatednts 000, 001, and 066. Let’s relook at these care locatednts and examine exactionly whead wear they contain.

These care locatednts provide different features and must not become deallowed.

  • Care locatednt 000 performs special functions. In particular, it is given extended functionality during upgrades.

  • Care locatednt 001 is fundamentalally a duplicate of 000 and can become used as a basis for a brand new customizing care locatednt.

  • Care locatednt 066 is a special care locatednt which is provided for operational system monitoring. It is used simply by SAP R/3’s Early Watch Service to provide performance recommendations.

Dereaspectred Care locatednts

In releases prior to 3.0, care locatednt 000 contained a model company kind of. As of Release 4.0 care locatednts, 000 and 001 are identical. Care locatednt 000 no durationyer contains a model company kind of. Either care locatednt can become used as the basis for configuration through a care locatednt duplicate. Typically, many projects start with a duplicate of care locatednt 000 to becomegin produceing configuration. Customer work need to never conaspectr place in the 3 dereaspectred care locatednts.

Minimum System Requirements

To install the lacheck SAP GUI 730 version, MSU machines must meet the folloearng minimum system requirements −

  • Windows-based PC operatening Windows 7, Vista, or Windows XP with Service Pack 3

  • Apple Mac with Virtual Machine delicatebattlee (VMWare, Fusion, Parallels) operatening Windows 7, Vista, or XP (Service Pack 3)

System Memory (RAM)

  • Windows XP − Minimum of 1 GB; 2 GB recommended

  • Windows 7 − Minimum of 2 GB; 4 GB recommended

  • Mac with Virtual Windows Environment − Minimum of 2 GB; 4 GB recommended

Disk Space

  • 145 MB of available disk space for the SAP GUI installer program

  • 250 MB of available disk space for the completey-instalimmediateed application

Required Softbattlee Downloads

Preliminary Installation Activiconnects

Increase Virtual Memory

My complaceer (Right click) → Properconnects → Advanced System settings → Performance → Setting → Advanced → Virtual Memory → Change

The folloearng screenshot shows the steps.

Virtual Memory

SAP – Net Weaver

NetWeaver is a combination of the belowlying SAP Kernel (furthermore known as the SAP OS layer, fundamentalally the WEB AS) and any kind of SAP delicatebattlee tool for business enablement.

NetWeaver at a Glance

SAP NetWeaver describecomes all the delicatebattlee and services used for 'Business Enablement'. The SAP Business suite, such as ECC or SRM, contains the delicatebattlee components for thead wear specific business solution.

  • SAP NetWeaver is an open up up technology platform thead wear provides a comprehensive set of technologies for operatening mission-critical business applications and integrating people, processes, and information.

  • SAP NetWeaver is a web-based, open up up integration, application platform thead wear serves as the foundation for enterprise service-oriented architecture (enterprise SOA) and allows the integration and alignment of people, information, and business processes acombination business and technology boundaries.

  • It utilizes open up up standards to enable integration with information and applications from almany any kind of source or technology.

  • SAP NetWeaver is the foundation of SAP Business Suite and SAP Business simply by Design. It furthermore powers partner solutions and customer custom-built applications.


SAP NetWeaver Components

SAP NetWeaver includes a comprehensive set of components, applications, and tools.

SAP NetWeaver Application Server

It supslots platform-independent web services, business applications, and standards-based development, enabling you to leverage existing technology bumets for Web-services-oriented solutions.

SAP NetWeaver Business Warehouse

It enables you to integrate data from acombination the enterprise and transform it into practionical, timely business information to drive sound decision maruler.

SAP NetWeaver Gateway

It enables developers to produce applications thead wear link business users to SAP delicatebattlee from any kind of environment and through any kind of device.

SAP NetWeaver Master Data Management

It ensures combination-system data consistency and helps integrate business processes acombination the extended value chain.

SAP NetWeaver Process Orchestration

It helps improve processes, from easy workflows to integrated processes thead wear span applications and body organizational boundaries. It includes capabiliconnects for business process management, business rules management, and process integration.

SAP NetWeaver Portal

It unifies critical information and applications to give users role-based look ats thead wear span the enterprise, enabling you to conaspectr complete advantage of your own information resources.

SAP Auto-ID Infrastructure

It gives you all the capabiliconnects you need to integrate all automated senperform devices including RFID readers and printers, Bluetooth devices, embecomedded systems, and barcode devices.

SAP NetWeaver Identity Management

It adgownes access and provisioning issues facing a typical enterprise. It produces a brand new opslotunity for integrating business processes, and helps you to integrate systems in a heterogeneous IT environment.

SAP NetWeaver Information Lifecycle Management

It allows you to archive data in a readily accessible format according to regulatory retention rules thead wear you degreat.

SAP NetWeaver Tools

SAP NetWeaver includes the folloearng tools −

Adaptive Complaceing Controller

It provides a central stage of manage for bumigning complaceing resources and optimizing their own use.

SAP NetWeaver Composit down downion Environment

It provides a robust environment for style, deployment, and operatening of composit down downe applications thead wear comply with a service-oriented architecture.

SAP NetWeaver Developer Studio

It provides a convenient user interface and wealthy functionality for developing J2EE applications.

SAP NetWeaver Visual Composer

It simplifies the creation of slotal content and analytics applications, enabling business analysts to produce or customise applications uperform a visual user interface instead than manual coding.

SAP Solution Manager

It facilitates specialised supslot for distributed systems with functionality thead wear covers all key aspects of solution deployment, operation, and continuous improvement.

SAP NetWeaver Applications

SAP NetWeaver includes the folloearng applications −

SAP NetWeaver Enterprise Search

It provides a easy and secure gateway to enterprise objects and transactionions.

SAP NetWeaver Single Sign-On

It provides a comprehensive performle sign-on solution, enabling reuse of a person's preliminary authentication for subsequent log-ins to all applications.

SAP – Logging On To An SAP System

In this particular chapter, we will go through folloearng topics −

  • SAP logon
  • Adding a brand new application server
  • Logging In and Out of SAP
  • Creating a brand new compalloweword or changing an old compalloweword

SAP Logon

SAP logon is used to produce icons to logon to SAP R/3. However, the icons produced with SAP logon are not placed in the SAP R/3 Windows group; they are instead shown via the SAP logon menu. The SAP logon pad is available once the SAP GUI is withinstalimmediateed at the workstation.

SAP Logon Icon

SAP Logon

SAP logon Pad

SAP Logon Pad

  • The SAP logon menu can become thought of as a one-quit storeping store, where end-users can select from logon icons, logon groups, or produce brand new logon icons.

  • Logon icons will log a user onto one specific application server. A logon group will log the user onto one of various applications servers depending on which one has the becomest performance statistics.

Adding a New SAP Application Server

To produce a shortcut for connecting to a brand new SAP application server, follow the procedure becomelow −

  • Click on the shortcut icon SAP Logon from the desktop and the Logon pad will open up up as shown in the folloearng screenshot. Click the ‘New’ button.

SAP Logon Pad

  • Click on the “Next” button as shown here.

Next Button

  • Fill in the folloearng details in the “System Enattempt Properconnects” screen.

  • Description − Provide a meaningful short text for identifying the server. The server will become available in the SAP Logon pad with this particular name.

  • Application server − Provide the IP/Adgown of the application server, provided simply by the basis administrator.

  • System numbecomer and System ID − Give the system numbecomer provided simply by the basis administrator. It need to become kept as 00, if nothing is specified.

  • SAP rawayer string − Provide the SAP Rawayer String, if provided simply by the basis administrator. Sometimes it may become left blank.

System Enattempt Properconnects

  • Click on Finish to compallowe the configuration. The brand newly produced SAP application server will now become available in the SAP logon pad.

SAP Logon Pad

Logging onto SAP R/3

SAP Logon pad is used to configure the SAP server. The SAP GUI is used to connect the complaceer to the SAP system.


A SAP GUI can become of the folloearng 3 categories −

  • SAP GUI for Windows environment
  • SAP GUI for Java environment
  • SAP GUI for HTML

Follow the procedure given becomelow to log onto the SAP server −

  • Launch the SAP logon pad.

  • Double-click on the Application Server (which you need to connect), from the SAP logon pad. The SAP logon screen appears.

  • On the SAP logon screen,

    • The value of the default care locatednt appears automatically. If you like to logon to a different care locatednt, then modify it with the brand new care locatednt numbecomer.

    • Next, enter the User ID and compalloweword bumigned to you.

    • Enter ‘EN’ in language to logon to English settings. Generally the language is defaulted to ‘EN’ or any kind of other language depending on the counattempt/users and instalimmediateed languages. So, for English as the logon language, you need not have to enter it in the SAP logon screen, as it conaspectrs it’s values from the default settings.

    • After filling up the four fields, press the Enter button to logon to the SAP system.

NOTE − During the very 1st logon to the system with your own ID, you will become prompted to modify your own preliminary compalloweword.

First Logon

Creating a New Pbumword

To modify your own compalloweword, click the “New Pbumword” button and set the compalloweword.

  • Select a brand new compalloweword and then confirm it simply by typing it again. The asterisk will remain in the compalloweword field.

  • Click on the click icon once you are satisfied with your own compalloweword selection.

New Pbumword

First Logon to SAP

The folloearng screen appears once you log in. The screen has many kind of standard screen attributes and navigation options to different application. We will speak abaway all these in subsequent chapters.

SAP Easy Access

Logging Off from SAP

  • Click on System (from Menu Bar) and select “Logoff”.

Easy Access System

  • You can furthermore logoff simply by clicruler the Logoff button at the upper-appropriate corner of the screen.

When you log off, a message pops up stating, “Unsaved data will become lost. Do you like to log off?” Click “Yes” if you have already securely posted (or saved) the transactionions you were operating on.

Easy Access Logoff

SAP – Personalizing The SAP Window

In this particular chapter, we will check how to customise the SAP layaway based on user preferences and local requirements. You can customise the folloearng settings based on our preference −

  • Visual Settings like SAP Theme, Color, Fonts and dimension, etc.

  • Interactionion Design like Keytable settings, Sound and Control setting, etc.

In addition, you can customise various other attributes which will immediately affect your own interactionion with SAP.

The Layaway Customize option can become accessed either through the application toolbar or through the SAP logon pad.

Customizing through the Application Toolbar

Click the “Customize Local Layaway” ButtonCustomize Local Layawayon the application toolbar, a fall-down menu will open up up. Click the menu “Options”, it will conaspectr you to the Local layaway optimization screen.

On the SAP GUI, you can produce the folloearng adsimplyments −

  • Options
  • New Visual Design
  • General Settings below Customizing Local Layaway
  • Other General Settings below Customizing Local Layaway
  • Internationalization Settings below Customizing Local Layaway
  • Switching the Visual Design

Easy Access Option

Customizing through the Logon Pad

You can customise the Local Layaway simply by accesperform the option from the SAP Logon Pad. Click the Icon Accesperform at the extreme top left-hand aspect corner. A fall-down menu will appear. Select “Options” from the menu item and it will conaspectr you to the SAP GUI customization screen shown in the next screenshot.

SAP Logon Option
Degreat Custom Color

[Note − Care locatednt-specific settings are not supsloted simply by this particular SAP system and modify conaspectrs effect for brand new sessions.]

SAP – End User Customization

This chapter exbasics how to modify the user parameters such as personal data to communication data, time zone, date and time field format, attributes for printing, etc.

Maintain User Profile

Click “System” on the menu bar. Select “User Profile” → “Own Data” as specified in the folloearng screenshot.

User Profile

The folloearng screen appears with options to modify the folloearng properconnects −

  • Date format
  • Decimal Notation
  • Logon Language − Use this particular option if we want to open up up SAP in a different language other than English
  • Time zone
  • Spool manage − This option will setup the default printer on which your own documents will become printed until and unless the printer is modifyd at operatetime or programmatically.

These options are already defaulted simply by SAP which the users can customise as per their own preference.

Maintain User Profile

In addition, SAP furthermore provides options to modify your own Personal Information such as very 1st name, final name, email id, and mobile numbecomer of the specified user ID. These fields can become maintained in the Adgown tab.

Maintain User Profile

SAP – Navigating In The SAP Window

This chapter exbasics fundamental SAP navigations including the screens, menus, transactionion codes, and buttons thead wear you will use regularly. The very 1st step to belowstand SAP is to becomecome familiar with SAP navigation.

SAP Navigation

Standard Toolbar

Standard Toolbar is located 2nd from the top and immediately becomelow the Menu bar. It contains Command field/Bar and other Standard Toolbar buttons.

Standard toolbar buttons provide fast access to SAP functions as specified becomelow.

ICON Descriptions ICON Descriptions
Enter Enter/Continue Help Help
Save Save Cutomize Local Layaway Customize local layaway
Back Back Find Find
Exit system task Exit system task Advanced Search Advanced Search
Cancel Cancel First page First page
Print Print Previous page Previous page
Create brand new session Create brand new session Next page Next page
Create Shortcut Create Shortcut Last Page Last page

Note − Toolbar button is grey; it is not available for use on thead wear particular screen.

Command Field

Command field is used to enter the Transactionion codes thead wear immediate to a system task or application withaway uperform Menu routes. Command field can become open up uped and shutd simply by uperform the icon on the appropriate of the Command Bar i.e. command Bar

You can execute the folloearng commands in this particular field with Enter

  • To call a transactionion in the exaction same session (earndow)

    Enter − /nxxxx (xxxx = transactionion code)

  • To call a transactionion in the exaction same session (earndow), where’simply by the preliminary screen is skipped

    Enter − /*xxxx (xxxx = transactionion code)

  • To call a transactionion in an additional session

    Enter − /oxxxx (xxxx = transactionion code)

  • To end the current transactionion

    Enter − /n

    Caution − Unsaved modifys are lost withaway battlening

  • To deallowe the current session

    Enter − /i

  • To generate a session list

    Enter − /o

  • To end the current transactionion and return to the starting menu

    Enter − /ns000

  • To log off from the system

    Enter − /nend

  • To log off from the system withaway a confirmation prompt

    Enter − /nex

    Caution − Changes thead wear were not saved are lost withaway battlening.

Title Bar

In becometween the Standard Toolbar and the Application Toolbar are locateds the Title Bar. It is used to display the name of the screen or application you are accesperform. Title Bar is dynamic and modifys from application to application.

Application Toolbar

The Application Toolbar is located immediately becomelow the screen title. It contains buttons thead wear duplicate functions available from the menu bar, but provides faster access to a few of the many commonly used functions for the current screen and system task.

The buttons available in the Application Toolbar modifys from application to application as per the style. So they are not constant.

As highlighted in the folloearng screenshot, the buttons Help and Layaway Menu are always available on every screen in the Application Toolbar.

Application Toolbar

Status Bar

The Status Bar is located at the base of the SAP screen. It displays imslotant system messages such as errors and compallowion of transactionions. It furthermore displays other session information such as:

  • System − Server in which you have logged in (in Screenshot: AU1)
  • Care locatednt − The care locatednt database you are accesperform (in Screenshot: 130)
  • User − User ID with which you have logged in (in Screenshot: SWIN1-83)

Status Bar


Of the five types of messages, only 3 are displayed in the Status Bar.

Success Message

Success Message

Error Message

Error Message

Warning Message

Warning Message

Menu Bar

Once you have logged onto the application, the preliminary menu screen appears. All the menus are displayed in the menu bar. The menus thead wear appear in the menu bar vary according to the task you are doing in the R/3 System. Therefore, you will see different menus as you work on different tasks.

System and Help menus are always available on every screen in the R/3 system −

System Help

  • System Menu − It contains functions thead wear affect the system as a whole, such as Create Session, End Session, User Profile, or Log Off options.

  • Help Menu − It contains functions for accesperform various forms of onseries supslot.

Note − In order to figure away exactionly whead wear function an icon represents on the toolbar, place the cursor on the icon (if it is enabimmediateed) and a floating container will appear with text and a unique Function key used to identify the icon.

Navigation Area

Navigation Area is referred as the area in the SAP menu where User Menu and Favorites folders and their own subfolders are located. Under Navigation Area, you will find 3 folders: Favorites, User Menu, and SAP Menu.

  • Favorites (Favorites) Favorites are produced simply by the users according to their own preferences. All the transactionion codes which the users have access to and used in regular day-to-day actioniviconnects are usually added to this particular folder.

  • SAP User Menu (Favorites) Content or the transactionion codes in this particular menu are derived according to the roles and authorization given to a particular user. All the transactionion codes specified in a particular role given to a user will appear in the User Menu.

  • SAP Standard Menu (Standard Menu) This is a standard SAP menu derived via roles and authorizations.

SAP – Programming Language(ABAP)

This chapter provides an overlook at of ABAP − the programming language used in SAP for developing business application supslot and development.

ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming)

ABAP is a programming language thead wear operates in the SAP ABAP operatetime environment, produced and used simply by SAP for the development of application programs including −

  • Reslots
  • Module Pool Programming
  • Interfaces
  • Forms
  • Data conversions
  • User Exit’s & BADI

All of R/3’s applications and actionually parts of it’s basis system were developed in ABAP.

ABAP is an actionuallyt-driven programming language. User actionions and system actionuallyts manage the execution of an application.

ABAP is furthermore calimmediateed ABAP/4. The “4” in ABAP/4 stands for “Fourth Generation Language” or 4GL.

ABAP Workbecomench

The ABAP Workbecomench is used simply by SAP for the development of standard and custom application delicatebattlee. The ABAP Workbecomench is furthermore used to produce book objects. It consists of the folloearng components −

  • ABAP Editor is used to maintain programs.

  • ABAP Dictionary is used to maintain Dictionary objects.

  • Reposit down downory Bseriesser is used to display a hierarchical structure of the components in a package.

  • Menu Painter is used to develop graphical user interfaces including menu bars and toolbars.

  • Screen Painter is used to maintain screen components for onseries programs.

  • Reposit down downory Information System contains information abaway development and operatetime objects, such as data models, book types and table structures, programs, and functions.

  • Test and Analysis Tools, such as the Syntax Check and the Debugger.

  • Function Builder, which allows to produce and maintain function groups and function modules.

  • Data Modeler, a tool which supslots graphical modeling.

  • Workbecomench Organizer, which maintains multiple development projects and manages their own distribution.

ABAP Workbecomench

Note − The ABAP Workbecomench used to become known as the ABAP/4 Development Workbecomench.


Reslot programs produce lists and can become divided into clbumical reslots and interactionive reslots.

  • Clbumical reslots do not allow interactionion simply by the user; presently proper now therefore, the fundamental list contains extensive information thead wear the user must usually sort through to find relevant data.

  • Interactionive reslots allow interactionion simply by the user; presently proper now therefore, the user can produce 2ndary, detaiimmediateed lists of the fundamental list simply by chooperform the relevant data and requesting more information.

  • SAP Query or Ad-hoc Query or InfoSet Query is a tool thead wear allows the end-user to style different queries based on different inplace and awayplace parameters in the SAP system according to the requirement. This is one of the resloting tools majorly used in the HR Module to draw data from relational databases. InfoSet Query is suitable for resloting in all areas of the SAP R/3 system.

Ad-Hoc query provides 3 different kinds of reslots −

  • Basic List − Simple reslots.

  • Statistics − Reslots with statistical functions such as average, percentage, etc.

  • Ranked List − For analytical reslots.

Transactionion code used to access ad-hoc Queries −

  • SQ01 − Maintain Queries

  • SQ02 − Display InfoSet

  • SQ03 − Maintain User Groups

Data Enattempt

The SAP database has to become filimmediateed becomefore the end-users can start operating over the business process for analyzing and resloting purpose. Various methods are used to transfer data into the system at various stages depending upon the complexity and data volume to become transferred.

Data can become transferred from SAP to SAP or SAP to non-SAP systems (legacy system). Data can furthermore become transferred through manual entries. The tools used for data transfer are as follows −

  • BDC (Batch Data Communication)
  • IDOC (Intermediate Document)
  • LSMW (Legacy System Migration Workbecomench)
  • Interfaces through upload of .txt or Excel files holding data
  • Manual data enattempt uperform transactionion codes


SAP generates a variety of documents such as purchase orders, sales orders, invoices, pay-slips, etc. You can conaspectr a print of these documents whenever required. The folloearng illustration shows how the printing process works in a SAP system.

Different kinds of print methods are needed in a SAP system, such as −

  • Local printing
  • Remote printing (ne2rk)
  • Front-end printing (SAP GUI for Windows)
  • Front-end printing (SAP GUI for HTML)

Front-end Printing

After the user triggers the print process, the print requests are sent to the spool server, which contains the dialog and spool work processes required for the procesperform.

General Programming

Programs can become produced interactionively uperform the capabiliconnects of the R/3 system. Programs can become executed both onseries and in the background. Background jobs can furthermore become scheduimmediateed to operate at specific intervals.

General Programming

  • Module pool programming (or onseries programming) involves the creation of a module pool (a collection of ABAP modules) and one or more screens. The modules are calimmediateed simply by the screen processor during program execution.

  • Batch inplace procesperform is used to ensure the secure transfer of data into the SAP system. This process is an automatic, protected data transfer to the SAP system which uses SAP transactionions to validate data as it populates the SAP database.

  • ABAP contains statements thead wear conform to CPI-C standards (Common Program Interface – Communications). These are used for programming communications programs.

  • ABAP can read and write sequential datasets.

SAP – Security

There are 3 stages to look after in order to ensure security −

  • Confidentiality − Unauthorised disclosure of data

  • Integrity − Unauthorised modification of data

  • Availpotential − Denial of service (a lack of availpotential of complaceing resources)

In SAP operatetime environment, both application security and unauthorised system access to SAP have to become manageimmediateed. The user accounts degreatd for users in the SAP operatetime environment are secured simply by roles thead wear grant authorizations to all of them. SAP authorizations manage access to transactionions (Business Process Activiconnects), or exactionly whead wear can become performed within a specific business process step simply by −

  • Keeping unauthorised persons away of the system
  • Keeping people away of places where they need to not become
  • Safeguarding the data from damage or loss


In order to avoid threats, a sound and robust system implements secureguards such as access manage, firewall, enweepption, O/S hardening, digital certificate, security monitor, and antivirus.

Safe Guards

Clbumification of Security

Security can become clbumified into 3 different categories −

  • Organizational Security − Related to body organization
  • Physical − Related to the physical bumets
  • Technical − Related to specialised threats. This is again dived into four types −
    • Program-level security
    • O/S-level security
    • Database security
    • Ne2rk security

Clbumification Security

Different Layers of Security

We can help multiple layers of security in a SAP R/3 system.

  • Authentication − Only legitimate users need to become able to access the system.

  • Authorization − Users need to only become able to perform their own styleated tasks.

  • Integrity − Data integrity needs to become granted at all time.

  • Privacy − Protection of data against unauthorised access.

  • Obligation − Ensuring lipotential and legal obligation tobattbroughts sconaspectrholders and shareholders including validation.

Security Layers

SAP – Basis

This chapter exbasics the folloearng topics −

  • the role of a BASIS Administrator,
  • tasks related to SAP BASIS Administration, and
  • categorization of SAP Administrative tasks.

We can subdivide the roles of a SAP BASIS Consultant into the folloearng categories −

Server Administrator

  • Interface Analyst
  • Solution Specialist
  • System Architect

Ne2rk Administrator

  • Transslot Administrator
  • Batch Administrator

Database Administrator

  • Security Specialist
  • ABAP Specialist
  • DDIC Manager

OS Administrator

  • System Administrator

Roles of a SAP BASIS Consultant

The folloearng illustration depicts the typical roles performed simply by a SAP BASIS Consultant −

SAP Basis Consultant

Tasks Performed below Different Roles

We can further categorize the tasks performed below different roles −

System Architect

  • Sizing SAP systems
  • Design SAP landscape

Transslot Administrator

  • Change manage acombination SAP landscape

Batch Administrator

  • Create and manage batch jobs acombination landscape

Security Specialist

  • Design, monitor, and manage access to SAP landscape

ABAP Specialist

  • Troubleshoot and tune ABAP programs
  • Apply appropriateion to program

DDIC Manager

  • Manage modifys to SAP data book


  • Manage integrity of SAP database objects
  • Manage backups and restore

System Administrator

  • Maintain system health
  • Monitor and tune system performance

Interface Analyst

  • Analyze and Monitor
  • Interfaces within SAP landscape

Solutions Specialist

  • Installation of AP / Add-On
  • Migrate OS / DB
  • Upgrade SAP version
  • Archiving of SAP Data

SAP BASIS Administration Tasks

SAP BASIS administration tasks can become further categorized as follows −

SAP Administration

  • Starting and quitping SAP instance(s)
  • User administration – setup and maintenance
  • Authorization / Role / Profiles – setup and maintenance
  • Setup SAP security
  • Maintenance of system’s health
  • Monitor system performance and logs
  • Spool and print administration
  • Maintain system landscape
  • Transslot management systems
  • Manage modify requests
  • Create / Manage batch jobs
  • Backup schedule, operate, and monitor backup of SAP
  • Apply patches, kernel, and OSS notes

Database Administration

  • Database Space Management
  • Database Backup
  • Database Recovery
  • Database log (Redo log, Archive Log) management
  • Database Performance Tunings

Operation System Administration

  • Operation system security
  • Operation system performance tuning
  • OS space management
  • OS level background job management
  • OS level backup and recovery

Overall System Monitoring

  • Monitoring R/3 servers and instances
  • Monitoring users and authorizations
  • Monitoring security part
  • Monitoring workload analysis
  • Monitoring processes
  • Monitoring buffers
  • Monitoring operating system
  • Monitoring database
  • Monitoring backups

SAP Administrator's Frequently Used Transactionions

  • SM04/AL08 − User List

  • SM51 − Display Application Server

  • SM37 − Background Job Overlook at

  • SM50/SM66 − Manage Work Processes

  • SM12 − Mange Lock Entries

  • PFCG − Maintain Roles

  • SM13 − Manage Update Records

  • SM21 − Analyze System Log

  • SM02 − Send System Messages

SAP – Transactionion Codes

Transactionion codes are used in SAP for getting an easy access to custom applications or to call predegreatd processes. Transactionion codes are a kind of shortcuts for different applications. Various categories of transactionion codes are degreatd according to application area and modules. Some common and many widely used transactionion codes are degreatd becomelow.

ABAP / Tables / Data Dictionary

  • SE11 − Dictionary definitions

  • SE14 − Database utility

  • SE16 − Data Bseriesser (display only)

  • SE16n − Modify: “&sap_edit” (uase16n)

  • SD11 − Data model

  • SM30/SM31 − SAP Table look at maintenance

  • SE54 (SOBJ) − Table / View Cluster

  • SE37 − Function module editor

  • SE38 / SE39 – Program editor / split screen

  • SA38 − Program execution

  • SE80 − ABAP development workbecomench

  • SE84 − Object navigator

  • SE18 − BAdI definitions

  • SE19 − BAdI implementations

  • SE24 − Clbum produceer

  • SWO1/2 − Business object produceer / bseriesser

  • SMARTFORMS − Smart forms administration

  • SE71 − SAP script (Form painter)

  • SE43 − Area menu maintenance

  • SE91 − Message maintenance

  • SE93 − Transactionion maintenance

Runtime / Logs / Database

  • SM21 − System log sm13 Update requests

  • ST22 − ABAP Runtime Error (Dump)

  • SM12 − Table look entries

  • SM56 − Numbecomer range buffers

  • SNRO − Numbecomer ranges

  • SE30 − Runtime analysis

  • ST01 − System trace

  • ST05 − SQL Trace

  • DB02, ST04 − Database tools / performance

  • ST02, ST06 − Database tune summary

  • SCU3 − Table logging (see V_DDAT_54)

Jobs / Batches / Events

  • SM36 − Job definition

  • SM37 /SMX − Job overlook at

  • SM50 − Process overlook at

  • SM34 − View cluster maintenance

  • SM49/SM69 − External commands

  • SM66 − Process overlook at

  • SM62/SM64 − Event overlook at / administration

  • STVARV(C) − Selection fields variables

User Administration

  • SM04 − User overlook at

  • SU53 − Check authorization data for user

  • SUIM − User information / authorization

  • SU20 / SU21 − Authorization object and clbum / field

  • SU01 − User maintenance PFCG roles

  • SU03 − Authorization Archive Development Kit (ADK)

Batch Inplace

  • SM35 − Batch Inplace: session overlook at

  • SHDB − Batch inplace recorder

Paths & Connections

  • AL11 − SAP file immediateory

  • FILE − Logical file route

  • SM58 − Transactionional RFC

  • SM59 − RFC interconnections

Spool (Print Outplace)

  • SP01 − Spool request selection

  • SP02 − List of own spool requests

  • SPAD − Spool administration

SAP – Project Lifecycle

In this particular chapter, we will belowstand the different phases of a SAP Project Lifecycle. A SAP project lifecycle consists of various stages, starting from evaluation to the project’s subsequent supslot.

SAP Project Lifecycle

SAP Project Lifecycle

Stages of SAP Project Lifecycle

A typical SAP project belowgoes the folloearng stages in it’s lifecycle −


Evaluation may become a decision to select becometween different delicatebattlee vendors or selection of products from a performle vendor.

Project Preparation

Since a SAP implementation intends to map the body organization processes to the ones degreatd simply by SAP, the implementation needs to have on-table people with compallowe knowladvantage of the body organization business processes. The project preparation phase, amongst other things, aims to identify this particular team.

Business Blueprint

A business blueprint includes exactionly whead wear modules of a SAP product would become used and the mapping of the existing business processes to the processes provided simply by SAP.


The actionual work of customizing the SAP delicatebattlee to become in sync with the body organizations business processes is done in this particular phase. It includes customization of existing SAP package and solution adurationy with the development of brand new objects based on requirement.


The modifys made in the realization phase need to become checked in isolation as well as in a constrongated manner uperform real-time data. This is done in the checking phase.

Final Preparation

The production system is prepared uperform the modifys from the realization and checking phases. Certain actioniviconnects need to become done immediately in the production system as well. These actioniviconnects conaspectr place during the final preparation phase.


In this particular stage, the final product is released to the end-users. The go-reaspect may become done in a Big Bang (all modules at one go) or in a phase-simply by-phase manner.

Sustain / Supslot

The project now moves into the “sustain and supslot” phase where the end-users’ issues would become resolved and ongoing maintenance of the system would become conaspectrn care of.

SAP – Career In SAP

Advancing your own career in SAP, you can move into different roles such as −

  • SAP ABAP Application Developer (style SAP Application)
  • SAP Functional Consultant (in different modules)
  • SAP Technical Architect
  • SAP Solution Architect
  • SAP Portal Consultant
  • SAP Portal Developer

You can look for the above opslotuniconnects in companies such as −

  • SAP Labs
  • Accenture
  • Tata Consultancy Services
  • Cognizant
  • IBM Global Business Services
  • Wipro
  • Tech Mahindra
  • L & T InfoTech
  • Delloite
  • KPMG
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